The OpenShift Container Platform node configuration file contains important options. For example, two parameters control the maximum number of pods that can be scheduled to a node: podsPerCore and maxPods.

When both options are in use, the lower of the two values limits the number of pods on a node. Exceeding these values can result in:

  • Increased CPU utilization.

  • Slow pod scheduling.

  • Potential out-of-memory scenarios, depending on the amount of memory in the node.

  • Exhausting the pool of IP addresses.

  • Resource overcommitting, leading to poor user application performance.

In Kubernetes, a pod that is holding a single container actually uses two containers. The second container is used to set up networking prior to the actual container starting. Therefore, a system running 10 pods will actually have 20 containers running.

Disk IOPS throttling from the cloud provider might have an impact on CRI-O and kubelet. They might get overloaded when there are large number of I/O intensive pods running on the nodes. It is recommended that you monitor the disk I/O on the nodes and use volumes with sufficient throughput for the workload.

podsPerCore sets the number of pods the node can run based on the number of processor cores on the node. For example, if podsPerCore is set to 10 on a node with 4 processor cores, the maximum number of pods allowed on the node will be 40.

  podsPerCore: 10

Setting podsPerCore to 0 disables this limit. The default is 0. podsPerCore cannot exceed maxPods.

maxPods sets the number of pods the node can run to a fixed value, regardless of the properties of the node.

    maxPods: 250

The kubelet configuration is currently serialized as an Ignition configuration, so it can be directly edited. However, there is also a new kubelet-config-controller added to the Machine Config Controller (MCC). This lets you use a KubeletConfig custom resource (CR) to edit the kubelet parameters.

As the fields in the kubeletConfig object are passed directly to the kubelet from upstream Kubernetes, the kubelet validates those values directly. Invalid values in the kubeletConfig object might cause cluster nodes to become unavailable. For valid values, see the Kubernetes documentation.

Consider the following guidance:

  • Create one KubeletConfig CR for each machine config pool with all the config changes you want for that pool. If you are applying the same content to all of the pools, you need only one KubeletConfig CR for all of the pools.

  • Edit an existing KubeletConfig CR to modify existing settings or add new settings, instead of creating a CR for each change. It is recommended that you create a CR only to modify a different machine config pool, or for changes that are intended to be temporary, so that you can revert the changes.

  • As needed, create multiple KubeletConfig CRs with a limit of 10 per cluster. For the first KubeletConfig CR, the Machine Config Operator (MCO) creates a machine config appended with kubelet. With each subsequent CR, the controller creates another kubelet machine config with a numeric suffix. For example, if you have a kubelet machine config with a -2 suffix, the next kubelet machine config is appended with -3.

If you want to delete the machine configs, delete them in reverse order to avoid exceeding the limit. For example, you delete the kubelet-3 machine config before deleting the kubelet-2 machine config.

If you have a machine config with a kubelet-9 suffix, and you create another KubeletConfig CR, a new machine config is not created, even if there are fewer than 10 kubelet machine configs.

Example KubeletConfig CR
$ oc get kubeletconfig
NAME                AGE
set-max-pods        15m
Example showing a KubeletConfig machine config
$ oc get mc | grep kubelet
99-worker-generated-kubelet-1                  b5c5119de007945b6fe6fb215db3b8e2ceb12511   3.2.0             26m

The following procedure is an example to show how to configure the maximum number of pods per node on the worker nodes.

  1. Obtain the label associated with the static MachineConfigPool CR for the type of node you want to configure. Perform one of the following steps:

    1. View the machine config pool:

      $ oc describe machineconfigpool <name>

      For example:

      $ oc describe machineconfigpool worker
      Example output
      apiVersion: machineconfiguration.openshift.io/v1
      kind: MachineConfigPool
        creationTimestamp: 2019-02-08T14:52:39Z
        generation: 1
          custom-kubelet: set-max-pods (1)
      1 If a label has been added it appears under labels.
    2. If the label is not present, add a key/value pair:

      $ oc label machineconfigpool worker custom-kubelet=set-max-pods
  1. View the available machine configuration objects that you can select:

    $ oc get machineconfig

    By default, the two kubelet-related configs are 01-master-kubelet and 01-worker-kubelet.

  2. Check the current value for the maximum pods per node:

    $ oc describe node <node_name>

    For example:

    $ oc describe node ci-ln-5grqprb-f76d1-ncnqq-worker-a-mdv94

    Look for value: pods: <value> in the Allocatable stanza:

    Example output
     attachable-volumes-aws-ebs:  25
     cpu:                         3500m
     hugepages-1Gi:               0
     hugepages-2Mi:               0
     memory:                      15341844Ki
     pods:                        250
  3. Set the maximum pods per node on the worker nodes by creating a custom resource file that contains the kubelet configuration:

    apiVersion: machineconfiguration.openshift.io/v1
    kind: KubeletConfig
      name: set-max-pods
          custom-kubelet: set-max-pods (1)
        maxPods: 500 (2)
    1 Enter the label from the machine config pool.
    2 Add the kubelet configuration. In this example, use maxPods to set the maximum pods per node.

    The rate at which the kubelet talks to the API server depends on queries per second (QPS) and burst values. The default values, 50 for kubeAPIQPS and 100 for kubeAPIBurst, are sufficient if there are limited pods running on each node. It is recommended to update the kubelet QPS and burst rates if there are enough CPU and memory resources on the node.

    apiVersion: machineconfiguration.openshift.io/v1
    kind: KubeletConfig
      name: set-max-pods
          custom-kubelet: set-max-pods
        maxPods: <pod_count>
        kubeAPIBurst: <burst_rate>
        kubeAPIQPS: <QPS>
    1. Update the machine config pool for workers with the label:

      $ oc label machineconfigpool worker custom-kubelet=large-pods
    2. Create the KubeletConfig object:

      $ oc create -f change-maxPods-cr.yaml
    3. Verify that the KubeletConfig object is created:

      $ oc get kubeletconfig
      Example output
      NAME                AGE
      set-max-pods        15m

      Depending on the number of worker nodes in the cluster, wait for the worker nodes to be rebooted one by one. For a cluster with 3 worker nodes, this could take about 10 to 15 minutes.

  4. Verify that the changes are applied to the node:

    1. Check on a worker node that the maxPods value changed:

      $ oc describe node <node_name>
    2. Locate the Allocatable stanza:

        attachable-volumes-gce-pd:  127
        cpu:                        3500m
        ephemeral-storage:          123201474766
        hugepages-1Gi:              0
        hugepages-2Mi:              0
        memory:                     14225400Ki
        pods:                       500 (1)
      1 In this example, the pods parameter should report the value you set in the KubeletConfig object.
  5. Verify the change in the KubeletConfig object:

    $ oc get kubeletconfigs set-max-pods -o yaml

    This should show a status of True and type:Success, as shown in the following example:

        maxPods: 500
          custom-kubelet: set-max-pods
      - lastTransitionTime: "2021-06-30T17:04:07Z"
        message: Success
        status: "True"
        type: Success

By default, only one machine is allowed to be unavailable when applying the kubelet-related configuration to the available worker nodes. For a large cluster, it can take a long time for the configuration change to be reflected. At any time, you can adjust the number of machines that are updating to speed up the process.

  1. Edit the worker machine config pool:

    $ oc edit machineconfigpool worker
  2. Set maxUnavailable to the value that you want:

      maxUnavailable: <node_count>

    When setting the value, consider the number of worker nodes that can be unavailable without affecting the applications running on the cluster.

The control plane node resource requirements depend on the number and type of nodes and objects in the cluster. The following control plane node size recommendations are based on the results of a control plane density focused testing, or Cluster-density. This test creates the following objects across a given number of namespaces:

  • 1 image stream

  • 1 build

  • 5 deployments, with 2 pod replicas in a sleep state, mounting 4 secrets, 4 config maps, and 1 downward API volume each

  • 5 services, each one pointing to the TCP/8080 and TCP/8443 ports of one of the previous deployments

  • 1 route pointing to the first of the previous services

  • 10 secrets containing 2048 random string characters

  • 10 config maps containing 2048 random string characters

Number of worker nodes Cluster-density (namespaces) CPU cores Memory (GB)

















On a large and dense cluster with three masters or control plane nodes, the CPU and memory usage will spike up when one of the nodes is stopped, rebooted or fails. The failures can be due to unexpected issues with power, network or underlying infrastructure in addition to intentional cases where the cluster is restarted after shutting it down to save costs. The remaining two control plane nodes must handle the load in order to be highly available which leads to increase in the resource usage. This is also expected during upgrades because the masters are cordoned, drained, and rebooted serially to apply the operating system updates, as well as the control plane Operators update. To avoid cascading failures, keep the overall CPU and memory resource usage on the control plane nodes to at most 60% of all available capacity to handle the resource usage spikes. Increase the CPU and memory on the control plane nodes accordingly to avoid potential downtime due to lack of resources.

The node sizing varies depending on the number of nodes and object counts in the cluster. It also depends on whether the objects are actively being created on the cluster. During object creation, the control plane is more active in terms of resource usage compared to when the objects are in the running phase.

Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM ) runs on the control plane nodes and it’s memory footprint depends on the number of namespaces and user installed operators that OLM needs to manage on the cluster. Control plane nodes need to be sized accordingly to avoid OOM kills. Following data points are based on the results from cluster maximums testing.

Number of namespaces OLM memory at idle state (GB) OLM memory with 5 user operators installed (GB)





































If you used an installer-provisioned infrastructure installation method, you cannot modify the control plane node size in a running OpenShift Container Platform 4.10 cluster. Instead, you must estimate your total node count and use the suggested control plane node size during installation.

The recommendations are based on the data points captured on OpenShift Container Platform clusters with OpenShift SDN as the network plugin.

In OpenShift Container Platform 4.10, half of a CPU core (500 millicore) is now reserved by the system by default compared to OpenShift Container Platform 3.11 and previous versions. The sizes are determined taking that into consideration.

When you have overloaded AWS master nodes in a cluster and the master nodes require more resources, you can increase the flavor size of the master instances.

It is recommended to backup etcd before increasing the flavor size of the AWS master instances.

  • You have an IPI (installer-provisioned infrastructure) or UPI (user-provisioned infrastructure) cluster on AWS.

  1. Open the AWS console, fetch the master instances.

  2. Stop one master instance.

  3. Select the stopped instance, and click ActionsInstance SettingsChange instance type.

  4. Change the instance to a larger type, ensuring that the type is the same base as the previous selection, and apply changes. For example, you can change m6i.xlarge to m6i.2xlarge or m6i.4xlarge.

  5. Backup the instance, and repeat the steps for the next master instance.

Additional resources

Because etcd writes data to disk and persists proposals on disk, its performance depends on disk performance. Although etcd is not particularly I/O intensive, it requires a low latency block device for optimal performance and stability. Because etcd’s consensus protocol depends on persistently storing metadata to a log (WAL), etcd is sensitive to disk-write latency. Slow disks and disk activity from other processes can cause long fsync latencies.

Those latencies can cause etcd to miss heartbeats, not commit new proposals to the disk on time, and ultimately experience request timeouts and temporary leader loss. High write latencies also lead to an OpenShift API slowness, which affects cluster performance. Because of these reasons, avoid colocating other workloads on the control-plane nodes.

In terms of latency, run etcd on top of a block device that can write at least 50 IOPS of 8000 bytes long sequentially. That is, with a latency of 20ms, keep in mind that uses fdatasync to synchronize each write in the WAL. For heavy loaded clusters, sequential 500 IOPS of 8000 bytes (2 ms) are recommended. To measure those numbers, you can use a benchmarking tool, such as fio.

To achieve such performance, run etcd on machines that are backed by SSD or NVMe disks with low latency and high throughput. Consider single-level cell (SLC) solid-state drives (SSDs), which provide 1 bit per memory cell, are durable and reliable, and are ideal for write-intensive workloads.

The following hard disk features provide optimal etcd performance:

  • Low latency to support fast read operation.

  • High-bandwidth writes for faster compactions and defragmentation.

  • High-bandwidth reads for faster recovery from failures.

  • Solid state drives as a minimum selection, however NVMe drives are preferred.

  • Server-grade hardware from various manufacturers for increased reliability.

  • RAID 0 technology for increased performance.

  • Dedicated etcd drives. Do not place log files or other heavy workloads on etcd drives.

Avoid NAS or SAN setups and spinning drives. Always benchmark by using utilities such as fio. Continuously monitor the cluster performance as it increases.

Avoid using the Network File System (NFS) protocol or other network based file systems.

Some key metrics to monitor on a deployed OpenShift Container Platform cluster are p99 of etcd disk write ahead log duration and the number of etcd leader changes. Use Prometheus to track these metrics.

To validate the hardware for etcd before or after you create the OpenShift Container Platform cluster, you can use fio.

  • Container runtimes such as Podman or Docker are installed on the machine that you’re testing.

  • Data is written to the /var/lib/etcd path.

  • Run fio and analyze the results:

    • If you use Podman, run this command:

      $ sudo podman run --volume /var/lib/etcd:/var/lib/etcd:Z quay.io/openshift-scale/etcd-perf
    • If you use Docker, run this command:

      $ sudo docker run --volume /var/lib/etcd:/var/lib/etcd:Z quay.io/openshift-scale/etcd-perf

The output reports whether the disk is fast enough to host etcd by comparing the 99th percentile of the fsync metric captured from the run to see if it is less than 20 ms. A few of the most important etcd metrics that might affected by I/O performance are as follow:

  • etcd_disk_wal_fsync_duration_seconds_bucket metric reports the etcd’s WAL fsync duration

  • etcd_disk_backend_commit_duration_seconds_bucket metric reports the etcd backend commit latency duration

  • etcd_server_leader_changes_seen_total metric reports the leader changes

Because etcd replicates the requests among all the members, its performance strongly depends on network input/output (I/O) latency. High network latencies result in etcd heartbeats taking longer than the election timeout, which results in leader elections that are disruptive to the cluster. A key metric to monitor on a deployed OpenShift Container Platform cluster is the 99th percentile of etcd network peer latency on each etcd cluster member. Use Prometheus to track the metric.

The histogram_quantile(0.99, rate(etcd_network_peer_round_trip_time_seconds_bucket[2m])) metric reports the round trip time for etcd to finish replicating the client requests between the members. Ensure that it is less than 50 ms.

For large and dense clusters, etcd can suffer from poor performance if the keyspace grows too large and exceeds the space quota. Periodically maintain and defragment etcd to free up space in the data store. Monitor Prometheus for etcd metrics and defragment it when required; otherwise, etcd can raise a cluster-wide alarm that puts the cluster into a maintenance mode that accepts only key reads and deletes.

Monitor these key metrics:

  • etcd_server_quota_backend_bytes, which is the current quota limit

  • etcd_mvcc_db_total_size_in_use_in_bytes, which indicates the actual database usage after a history compaction

  • etcd_debugging_mvcc_db_total_size_in_bytes, which shows the database size, including free space waiting for defragmentation

Defragment etcd data to reclaim disk space after events that cause disk fragmentation, such as etcd history compaction.

History compaction is performed automatically every five minutes and leaves gaps in the back-end database. This fragmented space is available for use by etcd, but is not available to the host file system. You must defragment etcd to make this space available to the host file system.

Defragmentation occurs automatically, but you can also trigger it manually.

Automatic defragmentation is good for most cases, because the etcd operator uses cluster information to determine the most efficient operation for the user.

The etcd Operator automatically defragments disks. No manual intervention is needed.

Verify that the defragmentation process is successful by viewing one of these logs:

  • etcd logs

  • cluster-etcd-operator pod

  • operator status error log

Automatic defragmentation can cause leader election failure in various OpenShift core components, such as the Kubernetes controller manager, which triggers a restart of the failing component. The restart is harmless and either triggers failover to the next running instance or the component resumes work again after the restart.

Example log output for successful defragmentation
etcd member has been defragmented: <member_name>, memberID: <member_id>
Example log output for unsuccessful defragmentation
failed defrag on member: <member_name>, memberID: <member_id>: <error_message>

A Prometheus alert indicates when you need to use manual defragmentation. The alert is displayed in two cases:

  • When etcd uses more than 50% of its available space for more than 10 minutes

  • When etcd is actively using less than 50% of its total database size for more than 10 minutes

You can also determine whether defragmentation is needed by checking the etcd database size in MB that will be freed by defragmentation with the PromQL expression: (etcd_mvcc_db_total_size_in_bytes - etcd_mvcc_db_total_size_in_use_in_bytes)/1024/1024

Defragmenting etcd is a blocking action. The etcd member will not respond until defragmentation is complete. For this reason, wait at least one minute between defragmentation actions on each of the pods to allow the cluster to recover.

Follow this procedure to defragment etcd data on each etcd member.

  • You have access to the cluster as a user with the cluster-admin role.

  1. Determine which etcd member is the leader, because the leader should be defragmented last.

    1. Get the list of etcd pods:

      $ oc get pods -n openshift-etcd -o wide | grep -v quorum-guard | grep etcd
      Example output
      etcd-ip-10-0-159-225.example.redhat.com                3/3     Running     0          175m   ip-10-0-159-225.example.redhat.com   <none>           <none>
      etcd-ip-10-0-191-37.example.redhat.com                 3/3     Running     0          173m    ip-10-0-191-37.example.redhat.com    <none>           <none>
      etcd-ip-10-0-199-170.example.redhat.com                3/3     Running     0          176m   ip-10-0-199-170.example.redhat.com   <none>           <none>
    2. Choose a pod and run the following command to determine which etcd member is the leader:

      $ oc rsh -n openshift-etcd etcd-ip-10-0-159-225.example.redhat.com etcdctl endpoint status --cluster -w table
      Example output
      Defaulting container name to etcdctl.
      Use 'oc describe pod/etcd-ip-10-0-159-225.example.redhat.com -n openshift-etcd' to see all of the containers in this pod.
      | | 251cd44483d811c3 |   3.4.9 |  104 MB |     false |      false |         7 |      91624 |              91624 |        |
      | | 264c7c58ecbdabee |   3.4.9 |  104 MB |     false |      false |         7 |      91624 |              91624 |        |
      | | 9ac311f93915cc79 |   3.4.9 |  104 MB |      true |      false |         7 |      91624 |              91624 |        |

      Based on the IS LEADER column of this output, the endpoint is the leader. Matching this endpoint with the output of the previous step, the pod name of the leader is etcd-ip-10-0-199-170.example.redhat.com.

  2. Defragment an etcd member.

    1. Connect to the running etcd container, passing in the name of a pod that is not the leader:

      $ oc rsh -n openshift-etcd etcd-ip-10-0-159-225.example.redhat.com
    2. Unset the ETCDCTL_ENDPOINTS environment variable:

      sh-4.4# unset ETCDCTL_ENDPOINTS
    3. Defragment the etcd member:

      sh-4.4# etcdctl --command-timeout=30s --endpoints=https://localhost:2379 defrag
      Example output
      Finished defragmenting etcd member[https://localhost:2379]

      If a timeout error occurs, increase the value for --command-timeout until the command succeeds.

    4. Verify that the database size was reduced:

      sh-4.4# etcdctl endpoint status -w table --cluster
      Example output
      | | 251cd44483d811c3 |   3.4.9 |  104 MB |     false |      false |         7 |      91624 |              91624 |        |
      | | 264c7c58ecbdabee |   3.4.9 |   41 MB |     false |      false |         7 |      91624 |              91624 |        | (1)
      | | 9ac311f93915cc79 |   3.4.9 |  104 MB |      true |      false |         7 |      91624 |              91624 |        |

      This example shows that the database size for this etcd member is now 41 MB as opposed to the starting size of 104 MB.

    5. Repeat these steps to connect to each of the other etcd members and defragment them. Always defragment the leader last.

      Wait at least one minute between defragmentation actions to allow the etcd pod to recover. Until the etcd pod recovers, the etcd member will not respond.

  3. If any NOSPACE alarms were triggered due to the space quota being exceeded, clear them.

    1. Check if there are any NOSPACE alarms:

      sh-4.4# etcdctl alarm list
      Example output
      memberID:12345678912345678912 alarm:NOSPACE
    2. Clear the alarms:

      sh-4.4# etcdctl alarm disarm
Next steps

After defragmentation, if etcd still uses more than 50% of its available space, consider increasing the disk quota for etcd.

The following infrastructure workloads do not incur OpenShift Container Platform worker subscriptions:

  • Kubernetes and OpenShift Container Platform control plane services that run on masters

  • The default router

  • The integrated container image registry

  • The HAProxy-based Ingress Controller

  • The cluster metrics collection, or monitoring service, including components for monitoring user-defined projects

  • Cluster aggregated logging

  • Service brokers

  • Red Hat Quay

  • Red Hat OpenShift Data Foundation

  • Red Hat Advanced Cluster Manager

  • Red Hat Advanced Cluster Security for Kubernetes

  • Red Hat OpenShift GitOps

  • Red Hat OpenShift Pipelines

Any node that runs any other container, pod, or component is a worker node that your subscription must cover.

For information on infrastructure nodes and which components can run on infrastructure nodes, see the "Red Hat OpenShift control plane and infrastructure nodes" section in the OpenShift sizing and subscription guide for enterprise Kubernetes document.

The monitoring stack includes multiple components, including Prometheus, Grafana, and Alertmanager. The Cluster Monitoring Operator manages this stack. To redeploy the monitoring stack to infrastructure nodes, you can create and apply a custom config map.

  1. Edit the cluster-monitoring-config config map and change the nodeSelector to use the infra label:

    $ oc edit configmap cluster-monitoring-config -n openshift-monitoring
    apiVersion: v1
    kind: ConfigMap