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Before you begin

  • Review About the OpenShift CLI.

  • You must be able to access a running instance of OpenShift Container Platform. If you do not have access, contact your cluster administrator.

  • You must have the OpenShift CLI (oc) downloaded and installed.

Logging in to the CLI

You can log in to the OpenShift CLI (oc) to access and manage your cluster.

Prerequisites
  • You must have access to an OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

  • You must have installed the OpenShift CLI (oc).

Procedure
  • Log into OpenShift Container Platform from the CLI using your username and password or with an OAuth token:

    • With username and password:

      $ oc login -u=<username> -p=<password> --server=<your-openshift-server> --insecure-skip-tls-verify
    • With an OAuth token:

      $ oc login <https://api.your-openshift-server.com> --token=<tokenID>

You can now create a project or issue other commands for managing your cluster.

Additional resources

Creating a new project

A project enables a community of users to organize and manage their content in isolation. Projects are OpenShift Container Platform extensions to Kubernetes namespaces. Projects have additional features that enable user self-provisioning.

Users must receive access to projects from administrators. Cluster administrators can allow developers to create their own projects. In most cases, users automatically have access to their own projects.

Each project has its own set of objects, policies, constraints, and service accounts.

Prerequisites
  • You must have access to an OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

  • You must have installed the OpenShift CLI (oc).

Procedure
  • To create a new project, enter the following command:

    $ oc new-project user-getting-started --display-name="Getting Started with OpenShift"
    Example output
    Now using project "user-getting-started" on server "https://openshift.example.com:6443".
Additional resources

Granting view permissions

OpenShift Container Platform automatically creates a few special service accounts in every project. The default service account takes responsibility for running the pods. OpenShift Container Platform uses and injects this service account into every pod that launches.

The following procedure creates a RoleBinding object for the default ServiceAccount object. The service account communicates with the OpenShift Container Platform API to learn about pods, services, and resources within the project.

Prerequisites
  • You must have access to an OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

  • You must have installed the OpenShift CLI (oc).

  • You have a deployed image.

  • You must have cluster-admin or project-admin privileges.

Procedure
  • To add the view role to the default service account in the user-getting-started project, enter the following command:

    $ oc adm policy add-role-to-user view -z default -n user-getting-started

Deploying your first image

The simplest way to deploy an application in OpenShift Container Platform is to run an existing container image. The following procedure deploys a front-end component of an application called national-parks-app. The web application displays an interactive map. The map displays the location of major national parks across the world.

Prerequisites
  • You must have access to an OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

  • You must have installed the OpenShift CLI (oc).

Procedure
  • To deploy an application, enter the following command:

    $ oc new-app quay.io/openshiftroadshow/parksmap:latest --name=parksmap -l 'app=national-parks-app,component=parksmap,role=frontend,app.kubernetes.io/part-of=national-parks-app'
    Example output
    --> Found container image 0c2f55f (12 months old) from quay.io for "quay.io/openshiftroadshow/parksmap:latest"
    
        * An image stream tag will be created as "parksmap:latest" that will track this image
    
    --> Creating resources with label app=national-parks-app,app.kubernetes.io/part-of=national-parks-app,component=parksmap,role=frontend ...
        imagestream.image.openshift.io "parksmap" created
        deployment.apps "parksmap" created
        service "parksmap" created
    --> Success
Additional resources

Creating a route

External clients can access applications running on OpenShift Container Platform through the routing layer and the data object behind that is a route. The default OpenShift Container Platform router (HAProxy) uses the HTTP header of the incoming request to determine where to proxy the connection.

Optionally, you can define security, such as TLS, for the route.

Prerequisites
  • You must have access to an OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

  • You must have installed the OpenShift CLI (oc).

  • You have a deployed image.

  • You must have cluster-admin or project-admin privileges.

Procedure
  1. To retrieve the created application service, enter the following command:

    $ oc get service
    Example output
    NAME      TYPE       CLUSTER-IP         EXTERNAL-IP    PORT(S)   AGE
    parksmap  ClusterIP  <your-cluster-IP>  <123.456.789>  8080/TCP  8m29s
  2. To create a route, enter the following command:

    $ oc create route edge parksmap --service=parksmap
    Example output
    route.route.openshift.io/parksmap created
  3. To retrieve the created application route, enter the following command:

    $ oc get route
    Example output
    NAME        HOST/PORT                                                   PATH   SERVICES   PORT       TERMINATION   WILDCARD
    parksmap    parksmap-user-getting-started.apps.cluster.example.com             parksmap   8080-tcp   edge          None
Additional resources

Examining the pod

OpenShift Container Platform leverages the Kubernetes concept of a pod, which is one or more containers deployed together on one host, and the smallest compute unit that can be defined, deployed, and managed. Pods are the rough equivalent of a machine instance, physical or virtual, to a container.

You can view the pods in your cluster and to determine the health of those pods and the cluster as a whole.

Prerequisites
  • You must have access to an OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

  • You must have installed the OpenShift CLI (oc).

  • You have a deployed image.

Procedure
  1. To list all pods with node names, enter the following command:

    $ oc get pods
    Example output
    NAME                       READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
    parksmap-5f9579955-6sng8   1/1     Running   0          77s
  2. To list all pod details, enter the following command:

    $ oc describe pods
    Example output
    Name:         parksmap-848bd4954b-5pvcc
    Namespace:    user-getting-started
    Priority:     0
    Node:         ci-ln-fr1rt92-72292-4fzf9-worker-a-g9g7c/10.0.128.4
    Start Time:   Sun, 13 Feb 2022 14:14:14 -0500
    Labels:       app=national-parks-app
                  app.kubernetes.io/part-of=national-parks-app
                  component=parksmap
                  deployment=parksmap
                  pod-template-hash=848bd4954b
                  role=frontend
    Annotations:  k8s.v1.cni.cncf.io/network-status:
                    [{
                        "name": "openshift-sdn",
                        "interface": "eth0",
                        "ips": [
                            "10.131.0.14"
                        ],
                        "default": true,
                        "dns": {}
                    }]
                  k8s.v1.cni.cncf.io/networks-status:
                    [{
                        "name": "openshift-sdn",
                        "interface": "eth0",
                        "ips": [
                            "10.131.0.14"
                        ],
                        "default": true,
                        "dns": {}
                    }]
                  openshift.io/generated-by: OpenShiftNewApp
                  openshift.io/scc: restricted
    Status:       Running
    IP:           10.131.0.14
    IPs:
      IP:           10.131.0.14
    Controlled By:  ReplicaSet/parksmap-848bd4954b
    Containers:
      parksmap:
        Container ID:   cri-o://4b2625d4f61861e33cc95ad6d455915ea8ff6b75e17650538cc33c1e3e26aeb8
        Image:          quay.io/openshiftroadshow/parksmap@sha256:89d1e324846cb431df9039e1a7fd0ed2ba0c51aafbae73f2abd70a83d5fa173b
        Image ID:       quay.io/openshiftroadshow/parksmap@sha256:89d1e324846cb431df9039e1a7fd0ed2ba0c51aafbae73f2abd70a83d5fa173b
        Port:           8080/TCP
        Host Port:      0/TCP
        State:          Running
          Started:      Sun, 13 Feb 2022 14:14:25 -0500
        Ready:          True
        Restart Count:  0
        Environment:    <none>
        Mounts:
          /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount from kube-api-access-6f844 (ro)
    Conditions:
      Type              Status
      Initialized       True
      Ready             True
      ContainersReady   True
      PodScheduled      True
    Volumes:
      kube-api-access-6f844:
        Type:                    Projected (a volume that contains injected data from multiple sources)
        TokenExpirationSeconds:  3607
        ConfigMapName:           kube-root-ca.crt
        ConfigMapOptional:       <nil>
        DownwardAPI:             true
        ConfigMapName:           openshift-service-ca.crt
        ConfigMapOptional:       <nil>
    QoS Class:                   BestEffort
    Node-Selectors:              <none>
    Tolerations:                 node.kubernetes.io/not-ready:NoExecute op=Exists for 300s
                                 node.kubernetes.io/unreachable:NoExecute op=Exists for 300s
    Events:
      Type    Reason          Age   From               Message
      ----    ------          ----  ----               -------
      Normal  Scheduled       46s   default-scheduler  Successfully assigned user-getting-started/parksmap-848bd4954b-5pvcc to ci-ln-fr1rt92-72292-4fzf9-worker-a-g9g7c
      Normal  AddedInterface  44s   multus             Add eth0 [10.131.0.14/23] from openshift-sdn
      Normal  Pulling         44s   kubelet            Pulling image "quay.io/openshiftroadshow/parksmap@sha256:89d1e324846cb431df9039e1a7fd0ed2ba0c51aafbae73f2abd70a83d5fa173b"
      Normal  Pulled          35s   kubelet            Successfully pulled image "quay.io/openshiftroadshow/parksmap@sha256:89d1e324846cb431df9039e1a7fd0ed2ba0c51aafbae73f2abd70a83d5fa173b" in 9.49243308s
      Normal  Created         35s   kubelet            Created container parksmap
      Normal  Started         35s   kubelet            Started container parksmap

Scaling the application

In Kubernetes, a Deployment object defines how an application deploys. In most cases, users use Pod, Service, ReplicaSets, and Deployment resources together. In most cases, OpenShift Container Platform creates the resources for you.

When you deploy the national-parks-app image, a deployment resource is created. In this example, only one Pod is deployed.

The following procedure scales the national-parks-image to use two instances.

Prerequisites
  • You must have access to an OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

  • You must have installed the OpenShift CLI (oc).

  • You have a deployed image.

Procedure
  • To scale your application from one pod instance to two pod instances, enter the following command:

    $ oc scale --current-replicas=1 --replicas=2 deployment/parksmap
    Example output
    deployment.apps/parksmap scaled
Verification
  1. To ensure that your application scaled properly, enter the following command:

    $ oc get pods
    Example output
    NAME                       READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
    parksmap-5f9579955-6sng8   1/1     Running   0          7m39s
    parksmap-5f9579955-8tgft   1/1     Running   0          24s
  2. To scale your application back down to one pod instance, enter the following command:

    $ oc scale --current-replicas=2 --replicas=1 deployment/parksmap
Additional resources

Deploying a Python application

The following procedure deploys a back-end service for the parksmap application. The Python application performs 2D geo-spatial queries against a MongoDB database to locate and return map coordinates of all national parks in the world.

The deployed back-end service is nationalparks.

Prerequisites
  • You must have access to an OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

  • You must have installed the OpenShift CLI (oc).

  • You have a deployed image.

Procedure
  1. To create a new Python application, enter the following command:

    $ oc new-app python~https://github.com/openshift-roadshow/nationalparks-py.git --name nationalparks -l 'app=national-parks-app,component=nationalparks,role=backend,app.kubernetes.io/part-of=national-parks-app,app.kubernetes.io/name=python' --allow-missing-images=true
    Example output
    --> Found image 0406f6c (13 days old) in image stream "openshift/python" under tag "3.9-ubi8" for "python"
    
        Python 3.9
        ----------
        Python 3.9 available as container is a base platform for building and running various Python 3.9 applications and frameworks. Python is an easy to learn, powerful programming language. It has efficient high-level data structures and a simple but effective approach to object-oriented programming. Python's elegant syntax and dynamic typing, together with its interpreted nature, make it an ideal language for scripting and rapid application development in many areas on most platforms.
    
        Tags: builder, python, python39, python-39, rh-python39
    
        * A source build using source code from https://github.com/openshift-roadshow/nationalparks-py.git will be created
          * The resulting image will be pushed to image stream tag "nationalparks:latest"
          * Use 'oc start-build' to trigger a new build
    
    --> Creating resources with label app=national-parks-app,app.kubernetes.io/name=python,app.kubernetes.io/part-of=national-parks-app,component=nationalparks,role=backend ...
        imagestream.image.openshift.io "nationalparks" created
        buildconfig.build.openshift.io "nationalparks" created
        deployment.apps "nationalparks" created
        service "nationalparks" created
    --> Success
  2. To create a route to expose your application, nationalparks, enter the following command:

    $ oc create route edge nationalparks --service=nationalparks
    Example output
    route.route.openshift.io/parksmap created
  3. To retrieve the created application route, enter the following command:

    $ oc get route
    Example output
    NAME             HOST/PORT                                                           PATH   SERVICES        PORT       TERMINATION   WILDCARD
    nationalparks    nationalparks-user-getting-started.apps.cluster.example.com                nationalparks   8080-tcp   edge          None
    parksmap         parksmap-user-getting-started.apps.cluster.example.com                     parksmap        8080-tcp   edge          None
Additional resources

Connecting to a database

Deploy and connect a MongoDB database where the national-parks-app application stores location information. Once you mark the national-parks-app application as a backend for the map visualization tool, parksmap deployment uses the OpenShift Container Platform discover mechanism to display the map automatically.

Prerequisites
  • You must have access to an OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

  • You must have installed the OpenShift CLI (oc).

  • You have a deployed image.

Procedure
  • To connect to a database, enter the following command:

    $ oc new-app quay.io/centos7/mongodb-36-centos7 --name mongodb-nationalparks -e MONGODB_USER=mongodb -e MONGODB_PASSWORD=mongodb -e MONGODB_DATABASE=mongodb -e MONGODB_ADMIN_PASSWORD=mongodb -l 'app.kubernetes.io/part-of=national-parks-app,app.kubernetes.io/name=mongodb'
    Example output
    --> Found container image dc18f52 (8 months old) from quay.io for "quay.io/centos7/mongodb-36-centos7"
    
        MongoDB 3.6
        -----------
        MongoDB (from humongous) is a free and open-source cross-platform document-oriented database program. Classified as a NoSQL database program, MongoDB uses JSON-like documents with schemas. This container image contains programs to run mongod server.
    
        Tags: database, mongodb, rh-mongodb36
    
        * An image stream tag will be created as "mongodb-nationalparks:latest" that will track this image
    
    --> Creating resources with label app.kubernetes.io/name=mongodb,app.kubernetes.io/part-of=national-parks-app ...
        imagestream.image.openshift.io "mongodb-nationalparks" created
        deployment.apps "mongodb-nationalparks" created
        service "mongodb-nationalparks" created
    --> Success
Additional resources

Creating a secret

The Secret object provides a mechanism to hold sensitive information such as passwords, OpenShift Container Platform client configuration files, private source repository credentials, and so on. Secrets decouple sensitive content from the pods. You can mount secrets into containers using a volume plug-in or the system can use secrets to perform actions on behalf of a pod. The following procedure adds the secret nationalparks-mongodb-parameters and mounts it to the nationalparks workload.

Prerequisites
  • You must have access to an OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

  • You must have installed the OpenShift CLI (oc).

  • You have a deployed image.

Procedure
  1. To create a secret, enter the following command:

    $ oc create secret generic nationalparks-mongodb-parameters --from-literal=DATABASE_SERVICE_NAME=mongodb-nationalparks --from-literal=MONGODB_USER=mongodb --from-literal=MONGODB_PASSWORD=mongodb --from-literal=MONGODB_DATABASE=mongodb --from-literal=MONGODB_ADMIN_PASSWORD=mongodb
    Example output
    secret/nationalparks-mongodb-parameters created
  2. To update the environment variable to attach the mongodb secret to the nationalpartks workload, enter the following command:

    $ oc set env --from=secret/nationalparks-mongodb-parameters deploy/nationalparks
    Example output
    deployment.apps/nationalparks updated
  3. To show the status of the nationalparks deployment, enter the following command:

    $ oc rollout status deployment nationalparks
    Example output
    deployment "nationalparks" successfully rolled out
  4. To show the status of the mongodb-nationalparks deployment, enter the following command:

    $ oc rollout status deployment mongodb-nationalparks
    Example output
    deployment "nationalparks" successfully rolled out
    deployment "mongodb-nationalparks" successfully rolled out

Loading data and displaying the national parks map

You deployed the parksmap and nationalparks applications and then deployed the mongodb-nationalparks database. However, no data has been loaded into the database.

Prerequisites
  • You must have access to an OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

  • You must have installed the OpenShift CLI (oc).

  • You have a deployed image.

Procedure
  1. To load national parks data, enter the following command:

    $ oc exec $(oc get pods -l component=nationalparks | tail -n 1 | awk '{print $1;}') -- curl -s http://localhost:8080/ws/data/load
    Example output
    "Items inserted in database: 2893"
  2. To verify that your data is loaded properly, enter the following command:

    $ oc exec $(oc get pods -l component=nationalparks | tail -n 1 | awk '{print $1;}') -- curl -s http://localhost:8080/ws/data/all
    Example output (trimmed)
    , {"id": "Great Zimbabwe", "latitude": "-20.2674635", "longitude": "30.9337986", "name": "Great Zimbabwe"}]
  3. To add labels to the route, enter the following command:

    $ oc label route nationalparks type=parksmap-backend
    Example output
    route.route.openshift.io/nationalparks labeled
  4. To retrieve your routes to view your map, enter the following command:

    $ oc get routes
    Example output
    NAME            HOST/PORT                                                      PATH   SERVICES        PORT       TERMINATION   WILDCARD
    nationalparks   nationalparks-user-getting-started.apps.cluster.example.com           nationalparks   8080-tcp   edge          None
    parksmap        parksmap-user-getting-started.apps.cluster.example.com                parksmap        8080-tcp   edge          None
  5. Copy and paste the HOST/PORT path you retrieved above into your web browser. Your browser should display a map of the national parks across the world.