Overview

A resource quota, defined by a ResourceQuota object, provides constraints that limit aggregate resource consumption per project. It can limit the quantity of objects that can be created in a project by type, as well as the total amount of compute resources and storage that may be consumed by resources in that project.

See the Developer Guide for more on compute resources.

Resources Managed by Quota

The following describes the set of compute resources and object types that may be managed by a quota.

A pod is in a terminal state if status.phase in (Failed, Succeeded) is true.

Table 1. Compute Resources Managed by Quota
Resource Name Description

cpu

The sum of CPU requests across all pods in a non-terminal state cannot exceed this value. cpu and requests.cpu are the same value and can be used interchangeably.

memory

The sum of memory requests across all pods in a non-terminal state cannot exceed this value. memory and requests.memory are the same value and can be used interchangeably.

requests.cpu

The sum of CPU requests across all pods in a non-terminal state cannot exceed this value. cpu and requests.cpu are the same value and can be used interchangeably.

requests.memory

The sum of memory requests across all pods in a non-terminal state cannot exceed this value. memory and requests.memory are the same value and can be used interchangeably.

requests.storage

The sum of storage requests across all persistent volume claims cannot exceed this value. storage and requests.storage are the same value and can be used interchangeably.

limits.cpu

The sum of CPU limits across all pods in a non-terminal state cannot exceed this value.

limits.memory

The sum of memory limits across all pods in a non-terminal state cannot exceed this value.

Table 2. Storage Resources Managed by Quota
Resource Name Description

requests.storage

The sum of storage requests across all persistent volume claims in any state cannot exceed this value.

persistentvolumeclaims

The total number of persistent volume claims that can exist in the project.

<storage-class-name>.storageclass.storage.k8s.io/requests.storage

The sum of storage requests across all persistent volume claims in any state that have a matching storage class, cannot exceed this value.

<storage-class-name>.storageclass.storage.k8s.io/persistentvolumeclaims

The total number of persistent volume claims with a matching storage class that can exist in the project.

Table 3. Object Counts Managed by Quota
Resource Name Description

pods

The total number of pods in a non-terminal state that can exist in the project.

replicationcontrollers

The total number of replication controllers that can exist in the project.

resourcequotas

The total number of resource quotas that can exist in the project.

services

The total number of services that can exist in the project.

secrets

The total number of secrets that can exist in the project.

configmaps

The total number of ConfigMap objects that can exist in the project.

persistentvolumeclaims

The total number of persistent volume claims that can exist in the project.

openshift.io/imagestreams

The total number of image streams that can exist in the project.

Quota Scopes

Each quota can have an associated set of scopes. A quota will only measure usage for a resource if it matches the intersection of enumerated scopes.

Adding a scope to a quota restricts the set of resources to which that quota can apply. Specifying a resource outside of the allowed set results in a validation error.

Scope Description

Terminating

Match pods where spec.activeDeadlineSeconds >= 0.

NotTerminating

Match pods where spec.activeDeadlineSeconds is nil.

BestEffort

Match pods that have best effort quality of service for either cpu or memory. See the Quality of Service Classes for more on committing compute resources.

NotBestEffort

Match pods that do not have best effort quality of service for cpu and memory.

A BestEffort scope restricts a quota to limiting the following resources:

  • pods

A Terminating, NotTerminating, and NotBestEffort scope restricts a quota to tracking the following resources:

  • pods

  • memory

  • requests.memory

  • limits.memory

  • cpu

  • requests.cpu

  • limits.cpu

Quota Enforcement

After a resource quota for a project is first created, the project restricts the ability to create any new resources that may violate a quota constraint until it has calculated updated usage statistics.

After a quota is created and usage statistics are updated, the project accepts the creation of new content. When you create or modify resources, your quota usage is incremented immediately upon the request to create or modify the resource.

When you delete a resource, your quota use is decremented during the next full recalculation of quota statistics for the project. A configurable amount of time determines how long it takes to reduce quota usage statistics to their current observed system value.

If project modifications exceed a quota usage limit, the server denies the action, and an appropriate error message is returned to the user explaining the quota constraint violated, and what their currently observed usage stats are in the system.

Requests vs Limits

When allocating compute resources, each container may specify a request and a limit value each for CPU and memory. Quotas can restrict any of these values.

If the quota has a value specified for requests.cpu or requests.memory, then it requires that every incoming container make an explicit request for those resources. If the quota has a value specified for limits.cpu or limits.memory, then it requires that every incoming container specify an explicit limit for those resources.

Sample Resource Quota Definitions

Example 1. object-counts.yaml
apiVersion: v1
kind: ResourceQuota
metadata:
  name: core-object-counts
spec:
  hard:
    configmaps: "10" (1)
    persistentvolumeclaims: "4" (2)
    replicationcontrollers: "20" (3)
    secrets: "10" (4)
    services: "10" (5)
1 The total number of ConfigMap objects that can exist in the project.
2 The total number of persistent volume claims (PVCs) that can exist in the project.
3 The total number of replication controllers that can exist in the project.
4 The total number of secrets that can exist in the project.
5 The total number of services that can exist in the project.
Example 2. openshift-object-counts.yaml
apiVersion: v1
kind: ResourceQuota
metadata:
  name: openshift-object-counts
spec:
  hard:
    openshift.io/imagestreams: "10" (1)
1 The total number of image streams that can exist in the project.
Example 3. compute-resources.yaml
apiVersion: v1
kind: ResourceQuota
metadata:
  name: compute-resources
spec:
  hard:
    pods: "4" (1)
    requests.cpu: "1" (2)
    requests.memory: 1Gi (3)
    limits.cpu: "2" (4)
    limits.memory: 2Gi (5)
1 The total number of pods in a non-terminal state that can exist in the project.
2 Across all pods in a non-terminal state, the sum of CPU requests cannot exceed 1 core.
3 Across all pods in a non-terminal state, the sum of memory requests cannot exceed 1Gi.
4 Across all pods in a non-terminal state, the sum of CPU limits cannot exceed 2 cores.
5 Across all pods in a non-terminal state, the sum of memory limits cannot exceed 2Gi.
Example 4. besteffort.yaml
apiVersion: v1
kind: ResourceQuota
metadata:
  name: besteffort
spec:
  hard:
    pods: "1" (1)
  scopes:
  - BestEffort (2)
1 The total number of pods in a non-terminal state with BestEffort quality of service that can exist in the project.
2 Restricts the quota to only matching pods that have BestEffort quality of service for either memory or CPU.
Example 5. compute-resources-long-running.yaml
apiVersion: v1
kind: ResourceQuota
metadata:
  name: compute-resources-long-running
spec:
  hard:
    pods: "4" (1)
    limits.cpu: "4" (2)
    limits.memory: "2Gi" (3)
  scopes:
  - NotTerminating (4)
1 The total number of pods in a non-terminal state.
2 Across all pods in a non-terminal state, the sum of CPU limits cannot exceed this value.
3 Across all pods in a non-terminal state, the sum of memory limits cannot exceed this value.
4 Restricts the quota to only matching pods where spec.activeDeadlineSeconds is nil. For example, this quota would not charge for build or deployer pods.
Example 6. compute-resources-time-bound.yaml
apiVersion: v1
kind: ResourceQuota
metadata:
  name: compute-resources-time-bound
spec:
  hard:
    pods: "2" (1)
    limits.cpu: "1" (2)
    limits.memory: "1Gi" (3)
  scopes:
  - Terminating (4)
1 The total number of pods in a non-terminal state.
2 Across all pods in a non-terminal state, the sum of CPU limits cannot exceed this value.
3 Across all pods in a non-terminal state, the sum of memory limits cannot exceed this value.
4 Restricts the quota to only matching pods where spec.activeDeadlineSeconds >=0. For example, this quota would charge for build or deployer pods, but not long running pods like a web server or database.
Example 7. storage-consumption.yaml
apiVersion: v1
kind: ResourceQuota
metadata:
  name: storage-consumption
spec:
  hard:
    persistentvolumeclaims: "10" (1)
    requests.storage: "50Gi" (2)
1 The total number of persistent volume claims in a project
2 Across all persistent volume claims in a project, the sum of storage requested cannot exceed this value.

Creating a Quota

To create a quota, first define the quota to your specifications in a file, for example as seen in Sample Resource Quota Definitions. Then, create using that file to apply it to a project:

$ oc create -f <resource_quota_definition> [-n <project_name>]

For example:

$ oc create -f resource-quota.json -n demoproject

Viewing a Quota

You can view usage statistics related to any hard limits defined in a project’s quota by navigating in the web console to the project’s Quota page.

You can also use the CLI to view quota details:

  1. First, get the list of quotas defined in the project. For example, for a project called demoproject:

    $ oc get quota -n demoproject
    NAME                AGE
    besteffort          11m
    compute-resources   2m
    core-object-counts  29m
  2. Then, describe the quota you are interested in, for example the core-object-counts quota:

    $ oc describe quota core-object-counts -n demoproject
    Name:			core-object-counts
    Namespace:		demoproject
    Resource		Used	Hard
    --------		----	----
    configmaps		3	10
    persistentvolumeclaims	0	4
    replicationcontrollers	3	20
    secrets			9	10
    services		2	10

Configuring Quota Synchronization Period

When a set of resources are deleted, the synchronization time frame of resources is determined by the resource-quota-sync-period setting in the /etc/origin/master/master-config.yaml file.

Before quota usage is restored, a user may encounter problems when attempting to reuse the resources. You can change the resource-quota-sync-period setting to have the set of resources regenerate at the desired amount of time (in seconds) and for the resources to be available again:

kubernetesMasterConfig:
  apiLevels:
  - v1beta3
  - v1
  apiServerArguments: null
  controllerArguments:
    resource-quota-sync-period:
      - "10s"

After making any changes, restart the master service to apply them.

Adjusting the regeneration time can be helpful for creating resources and determining resource usage when automation is used.

The resource-quota-sync-period setting is designed to balance system performance. Reducing the sync period can result in a heavy load on the master.

Accounting for Quota in Deployment Configurations

If a quota has been defined for your project, see Deployment Resources for considerations on any deployment configurations.

Require Explicit Quota to Consume a Resource

This feature is tech preview and subject to change in future releases.

If a resource is not managed by quota, a user has no restriction on the amount of resource that can be consumed. For example, if there is no quota on storage related to the gold storage class, the amount of gold storage a project can create is unbounded.

For high-cost compute or storage resources, administrators may want to require an explicit quota be granted in order to consume a resource. For example, if a project was not explicitly given quota for storage related to the gold storage class, users of that project would not be able to create any storage of that type.

In order to require explicit quota to consume a particular resource, the following stanza should be added to the master-config.yaml.

admissionConfig:
  pluginConfig:
    ResourceQuota:
      configuration:
        apiVersion: resourcequota.admission.k8s.io/v1alpha1
        kind: Configuration
        limitedResources:
        - resource: persistentvolumeclaims (1)
          matchContains:
        - gold.storageclass.storage.k8s.io/requests.storage (2)
1 The group/resource to whose consumption is limited by default.
2 The name of the resource tracked by quota associated with the group/resource to limit by default.

In the above example, the quota system will intercept every operation that creates or updates a PersistentVolumeClaim. It checks what resources understood by quota would be consumed, and if there is no covering quota for those resources in the project, the request is denied. In this example, if a user creates a PersistentVolumeClaim that uses storage associated with the gold storage class, and there is no matching quota in the project, the request is denied.