Azure Red Hat OpenShift 3.11 will be retired 30 June 2022. Support for creation of new Azure Red Hat OpenShift 3.11 clusters continues through 30 November 2020. Following retirement, remaining Azure Red Hat OpenShift 3.11 clusters will be shut down to prevent security vulnerabilities.

Follow this guide to create an Azure Red Hat OpenShift 4 cluster. If you have specific questions, please contact us

What Is the Azure Red Hat OpenShift Architecture?

Azure Red Hat OpenShift has a microservices-based architecture of smaller, decoupled units that work together. It runs on top of a Kubernetes cluster, with data about the objects stored in etcd, a reliable clustered key-value store. Those services are broken down by function:

  • REST APIs, which expose each of the core objects.

  • Controllers, which read those APIs, apply changes to other objects, and report status or write back to the object.

The cluster runs on Microsoft Azure cloud resources. It is managed by Azure Red Hat OpenShift site reliability engineers who, among other things, follow cluster maintenance processes.

Users make calls to the REST API to change the state of the system. Controllers use the REST API to read the user’s desired state, and then try to bring the other parts of the system into sync. For example, when a user requests a build they create a "build" object. The build controller sees that a new build has been created, and runs a process on the cluster to perform that build. When the build completes, the controller updates the build object via the REST API and the user sees that their build is complete.

To make this possible, controllers leverage a reliable stream of changes to the system to sync their view of the system with what users are doing. This event stream pushes changes from etcd to the REST API and then to the controllers as soon as changes occur, so changes can ripple out through the system very quickly and efficiently. However, since failures can occur at any time, the controllers must also be able to get the latest state of the system at startup, and confirm that everything is in the right state. This resynchronization is important, because it means that even if something goes wrong, then the operator can restart the affected components, and the system double checks everything before continuing. The system should eventually converge to the user’s intent, since the controllers can always bring the system into sync.

How Is Azure Red Hat OpenShift Secured?

The Azure Red Hat OpenShift and Kubernetes APIs authenticate users who present credentials, and then authorize them based on their role. Both developers and administrators can be authenticated via a number of means, primarily OAuth tokens and X.509 client certificates. OAuth tokens are signed with JSON Web Algorithm RS256, which is RSA signature algorithm PKCS#1 v1.5 with SHA-256.

Developers (clients of the system) typically make REST API calls from a client program like oc or to the web console via their browser, and use OAuth bearer tokens for most communications. Infrastructure components (like nodes) use client certificates generated by the system that contain their identities. Infrastructure components that run in containers use a token associated with their service account to connect to the API.

Azure Red Hat OpenShift uses Azure Active Directory (AAD) for authentication. All users in the AAD hierarchy have developer access.

Members of the customer administrator group that is specified at cluster creation become customer administrators, which can manage other users' projects.

Authorization is handled in the Azure Red Hat OpenShift policy engine, which defines actions like "create pod" or "list services" and groups them into roles in a policy document. Roles are bound to users or groups by the user or group identifier. When a user or service account attempts an action, the policy engine checks for one or more of the roles assigned to the user (e.g., cluster administrator or administrator of the current project) before allowing it to continue.

TLS Support

All communication channels with the REST API, as well as between master components such as etcd and the API server, are secured with TLS. TLS provides strong encryption, data integrity, and authentication of servers with X.509 server certificates and public key infrastructure.

Azure Red Hat OpenShift uses Golang’s standard library implementation of crypto/tls and does not depend on any external crypto and TLS libraries. Additionally, the client depends on external libraries for GSSAPI authentication and OpenPGP signatures. GSSAPI is typically provided by either MIT Kerberos or Heimdal Kerberos, which both use OpenSSL’s libcrypto. OpenPGP signature verification is handled by libgpgme and GnuPG.

The insecure versions SSL 2.0 and SSL 3.0 are unsupported and not available. The Azure Red Hat OpenShift server and oc client only provide TLS 1.2 by default. TLS 1.0 and TLS 1.1 can be enabled in the server configuration. Both server and client prefer modern cipher suites with authenticated encryption algorithms and perfect forward secrecy. Cipher suites with deprecated and insecure algorithms such as RC4, 3DES, and MD5 are disabled. Some internal clients (for example, LDAP authentication) have less restrict settings with TLS 1.0 to 1.2 and more cipher suites enabled.

Table 1. Supported TLS Versions
TLS Version Azure Red Hat OpenShift Server oc Client Other Clients

SSL 2.0




SSL 3.0




TLS 1.0

No [1]

No [1]

Maybe [2]

TLS 1.1

No [1]

No [1]

Maybe [2]

TLS 1.2




TLS 1.3

N/A [3]

N/A [3]

N/A [3]

  1. Disabled by default, but can be enabled in the server configuration.

  2. Some internal clients, such as the LDAP client.

  3. TLS 1.3 is still under development.

The following list of enabled cipher suites of Azure Red Hat OpenShift’s server and oc client are sorted in preferred order: