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After you have created a Quarkus function project, you can modify the template files provided to add business logic to your function.

Prerequisites

Quarkus function template structure

When you create a Quarkus function by using the kn CLI, the project directory looks similar to a typical Maven project.

Both http and event trigger functions have the same template structure:

Template structure
.
├── func.yaml (1)
├── mvnw
├── mvnw.cmd
├── pom.xml (2)
├── README.md
└── src
    ├── main
    │   ├── java
    │   │   └── functions
    │   │       ├── Function.java (3)
    │   │       ├── Input.java
    │   │       └── Output.java
    │   └── resources
    │       └── application.properties
    └── test
        └── java
            └── functions (4)
                ├── FunctionTest.java
                └── NativeFunctionIT.java
1 Used to determine the image name and registry.
2 The Project Object Model (POM) file contains project configuration, such as information about dependencies. You can add additional dependencies by modifying this file.
Example of additional dependencies
...
  <dependencies>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>junit</groupId>
      <artifactId>junit</artifactId>
      <version>4.11</version>
      <scope>test</scope>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>org.assertj</groupId>
      <artifactId>assertj-core</artifactId>
      <version>3.8.0</version>
      <scope>test</scope>
    </dependency>
  </dependencies>
...

Dependencies are downloaded during the first compilation.

3 The function project must contain a Java method annotated with @Funq. You can place this method in the Function.java class.
4 Contains simple test cases that can be used to test your function locally.

About invoking Quarkus functions

You can create a Quarkus project that responds to cloud events, or one that responds to simple HTTP requests. Cloud events in Knative are transported over HTTP as a POST request, so either function type can listen and respond to incoming HTTP requests.

When an incoming request is received, Quarkus functions are invoked with an instance of a permitted type.

Table 1. Function invocation options
Invocation method Data type contained in the instance Example of data

HTTP POST request

JSON object in the body of the request

{ "customerId": "0123456", "productId": "6543210" }

HTTP GET request

Data in the query string

?customerId=0123456&productId=6543210

CloudEvent

JSON object in the data property

{ "customerId": "0123456", "productId": "6543210" }

The following example shows a function that receives and processes the customerId and productId purchase data that is listed in the previous table:

Example Quarkus function
public class Functions {
    @Funq
    public void processPurchase(Purchase purchase) {
        // process the purchase
    }
}

The corresponding Purchase JavaBean class that contains the purchase data looks as follows:

Example class
public class Purchase {
    private long customerId;
    private long productId;
    // getters and setters
}

Invocation examples

The following example code defines three functions named withBeans, withCloudEvent, and withBinary;

Example
import io.quarkus.funqy.Funq;
import io.quarkus.funqy.knative.events.CloudEvent;

public class Input {
    private String message;

    // getters and setters
}

public class Output {
    private String message;

    // getters and setters
}

public class Functions {
    @Funq
    public Output withBeans(Input in) {
        // function body
    }

    @Funq
    public CloudEvent<Output> withCloudEvent(CloudEvent<Input> in) {
        // function body
    }

    @Funq
    public void withBinary(byte[] in) {
        // function body
    }
}

The withBeans function of the Functions class can be invoked by:

  • An HTTP POST request with a JSON body:

    $ curl "http://localhost:8080/withBeans" -X POST \
        -H "Content-Type: application/json" \
        -d '{"message": "Hello there."}'
  • An HTTP GET request with query parameters:

    $ curl "http://localhost:8080/withBeans?message=Hello%20there." -X GET
  • A CloudEvent object in binary encoding:

    $ curl "http://localhost:8080/" -X POST \
      -H "Content-Type: application/json" \
      -H "Ce-SpecVersion: 1.0" \
      -H "Ce-Type: withBeans" \
      -H "Ce-Source: cURL" \
      -H "Ce-Id: 42" \
      -d '{"message": "Hello there."}'
  • A CloudEvent object in structured encoding:

    $ curl http://localhost:8080/ \
        -H "Content-Type: application/cloudevents+json" \
        -d '{ "data": {"message":"Hello there."},
              "datacontenttype": "application/json",
              "id": "42",
              "source": "curl",
              "type": "withBeans",
              "specversion": "1.0"}'

The withCloudEvent function of the Functions class can be invoked by using a CloudEvent object, similarly to the withBeans function. However, unlike withBeans, withCloudEvent cannot be invoked with a plain HTTP request.

The withBinary function of the Functions class can be invoked by:

  • A CloudEvent object in binary encoding:

    $ curl "http://localhost:8080/" -X POST \
      -H "Content-Type: application/octet-stream" \
      -H "Ce-SpecVersion: 1.0"\
      -H "Ce-Type: withBinary" \
      -H "Ce-Source: cURL" \
      -H "Ce-Id: 42" \
      --data-binary '@img.jpg'
  • A CloudEvent object in structured encoding:

    $ curl http://localhost:8080/ \
      -H "Content-Type: application/cloudevents+json" \
      -d "{ \"data_base64\": \"$(base64 --wrap=0 img.jpg)\",
            \"datacontenttype\": \"application/octet-stream\",
            \"id\": \"42\",
            \"source\": \"curl\",
            \"type\": \"withBinary\",
            \"specversion\": \"1.0\"}"

CloudEvent attributes

If you need to read or write the attributes of a CloudEvent, such as type or subject, you can use the CloudEvent<T> generic interface and the CloudEventBuilder builder. The <T> type parameter must be one of the permitted types.

In the following example, CloudEventBuilder is used to return success or failure of processing the purchase:

public class Functions {

    private boolean _processPurchase(Purchase purchase) {
        // do stuff
    }

    public CloudEvent<Void> processPurchase(CloudEvent<Purchase> purchaseEvent) {
        System.out.println("subject is: " + purchaseEvent.subject());

        if (!_processPurchase(purchaseEvent.data())) {
            return CloudEventBuilder.create()
                    .type("purchase.error")
                    .build();
        }
        return CloudEventBuilder.create()
                .type("purchase.success")
                .build();
    }
}

Quarkus function return values

Functions can return an instance of:

  • Any type from the list of permitted types.

  • The Uni<T> type, where the <T> type parameter can be of any type from the permitted types.

The Uni<T> type is useful if a function calls asynchronous APIs, because the returned object is serialized in the same format as the received object. For example:

  • If a function receives an HTTP request, then the returned object is sent in the body of an HTTP response.

  • If a function receives a CloudEvent object in binary encoding, then the returned object is sent in the data property of a binary-encoded CloudEvent object.

The following example shows a function that fetches a list of purchases:

Example command
public class Functions {
    @Funq
    public List<Purchase> getPurchasesByName(String name) {
      // logic to retrieve purchases
    }
}
  • Invoking this function through an HTTP request produces an HTTP response that contains a list of purchases in the body of the response.

  • Invoking this function through an incoming CloudEvent object produces a CloudEvent response with a list of purchases in the data property.

Permitted types

The input and output types of a function can be any of the following:

  • void

  • String

  • byte[]

  • Primitive types and their wrappers (for example, int and Integer).

  • A JavaBean, if its attributes are of types listed here.

  • A map, list, or array of the types in this list.

  • The special CloudEvents<T> type, where the <T> type parameter is of a type in this list.

Example
public class Functions {
    public List<Integer> getIds();
    public Purchase[] getPurchasesByName(String name);
    public String getNameById(int id);
    public Map<String,Integer> getNameIdMapping();
    public void processImage(byte[] img);
}

Testing Quarkus functions

You can test Quarkus functions locally on your computer by running the Maven tests that are included in the project template.

Procedure
  • Run the Maven tests:

    $ ./mvnw test

Next steps