Creating a CA certificate bundle file

If you use a self-signed certificate to secure a cluster or a replication repository for the Migration Toolkit for Containers (MTC), certificate verification might fail with the following error message: Certificate signed by unknown authority.

You can create a custom CA certificate bundle file and upload it in the MTC web console when you add a cluster or a replication repository.

Procedure

Download a CA certificate from a remote endpoint and save it as a CA bundle file:

$ echo -n | openssl s_client -connect <host_FQDN>:<port> \ (1)
  | sed -ne '/-BEGIN CERTIFICATE-/,/-END CERTIFICATE-/p' > <ca_bundle.cert> (2)
1 Specify the host FQDN and port of the endpoint, for example, api.my-cluster.example.com:6443.
2 Specify the name of the CA bundle file.

Migrating your applications by using the MTC web console

You can configure clusters and a replication repository by using the MTC web console. Then, you can create and run a migration plan.

Adding a cluster to the MTC web console

You can add a cluster to the Migration Toolkit for Containers (MTC) web console.

Prerequisites

If you are using Azure snapshots to copy data:

  • You must provide the Azure resource group name when you add the source cluster.

  • The source and target clusters must be in the same Azure resource group and in the same location.

Procedure
  1. Log in to the cluster.

  2. Obtain the service account token:

    $ oc sa get-token migration-controller -n openshift-migration
    Example output
    eyJhbGciOiJSUzI1NiIsImtpZCI6IiJ9.eyJpc3MiOiJrdWJlcm5ldGVzL3NlcnZpY2VhY2NvdW50Iiwia3ViZXJuZXRlcy5pby9zZXJ2aWNlYWNjb3VudC9uYW1lc3BhY2UiOiJtaWciLCJrdWJlcm5ldGVzLmlvL3NlcnZpY2VhY2NvdW50L3NlY3JldC5uYW1lIjoibWlnLXRva2VuLWs4dDJyIiwia3ViZXJuZXRlcy5pby9zZXJ2aWNlYWNjb3VudC9zZXJ2aWNlLWFjY291bnQubmFtZSI6Im1pZyIsImt1YmVybmV0ZXMuaW8vc2VydmljZWFjY291bnQvc2VydmljZS1hY2NvdW50LnVpZCI6ImE1YjFiYWMwLWMxYmYtMTFlOS05Y2NiLTAyOWRmODYwYjMwOCIsInN1YiI6InN5c3RlbTpzZXJ2aWNlYWNjb3VudDptaWc6bWlnIn0.xqeeAINK7UXpdRqAtOj70qhBJPeMwmgLomV9iFxr5RoqUgKchZRG2J2rkqmPm6vr7K-cm7ibD1IBpdQJCcVDuoHYsFgV4mp9vgOfn9osSDp2TGikwNz4Az95e81xnjVUmzh-NjDsEpw71DH92iHV_xt2sTwtzftS49LpPW2LjrV0evtNBP_t_RfskdArt5VSv25eORl7zScqfe1CiMkcVbf2UqACQjo3LbkpfN26HAioO2oH0ECPiRzT0Xyh-KwFutJLS9Xgghyw-LD9kPKcE_xbbJ9Y4Rqajh7WdPYuB0Jd9DPVrslmzK-F6cgHHYoZEv0SvLQi-PO0rpDrcjOEQQ
  3. In the MTC web console, click Clusters.

  4. Click Add cluster.

  5. Fill in the following fields:

    • Cluster name: May contain lower-case letters (a-z) and numbers (0-9). Must not contain spaces or international characters.

    • Url: URL of the cluster’s API server, for example, https://<master1.example.com>:8443.

    • Service account token: String that you obtained from the source cluster.

    • Exposed route to image registry: Optional. You can specify a route to the image registry of your source cluster to enable direct migration for images, for example, docker-registry-default.apps.cluster.com.

      Direct migration is much faster than migration with a replication repository.

    • Azure cluster: Optional. Select it if you are using Azure snapshots to copy your data.

    • Azure resource group: This field appears if Azure cluster is checked.

    • If you use a custom CA bundle, click Browse and browse to the CA bundle file.

  6. Click Add cluster.

    The cluster appears in the Clusters list.

Adding a replication repository to the MTC web console

You can add an object storage bucket as a replication repository to the Migration Toolkit for Containers (MTC) web console.

Prerequisites
  • You must configure an object storage bucket for migrating the data.

Procedure
  1. In the MTC web console, click Replication repositories.

  2. Click Add repository.

  3. Select a Storage provider type and fill in the following fields:

    • AWS for AWS S3, MCG, and generic S3 providers:

      • Replication repository name: Specify the replication repository name in the MTC web console.

      • S3 bucket name: Specify the name of the S3 bucket you created.

      • S3 bucket region: Specify the S3 bucket region. Required for AWS S3. Optional for other S3 providers.

      • S3 endpoint: Specify the URL of the S3 service, not the bucket, for example, https://<s3-storage.apps.cluster.com>. Required for a generic S3 provider. You must use the https:// prefix.

      • S3 provider access key: Specify the <AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY> for AWS or the S3 provider access key for MCG.

      • S3 provider secret access key: Specify the <AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID> for AWS or the S3 provider secret access key for MCG.

      • Require SSL verification: Clear this check box if you are using a generic S3 provider.

      • If you use a custom CA bundle, click Browse and browse to the Base64-encoded CA bundle file.

    • GCP:

      • Replication repository name: Specify the replication repository name in the MTC web console.

      • GCP bucket name: Specify the name of the GCP bucket.

      • GCP credential JSON blob: Specify the string in the credentials-velero file.

    • Azure:

      • Replication repository name: Specify the replication repository name in the MTC web console.

      • Azure resource group: Specify the resource group of the Azure Blob storage.

      • Azure storage account name: Specify the Azure Blob storage account name.

      • Azure credentials - INI file contents: Specify the string in the credentials-velero file.

  4. Click Add repository and wait for connection validation.

  5. Click Close.

    The new repository appears in the Replication repositories list.

Creating a migration plan in the MTC web console

You can create a migration plan in the Migration Toolkit for Containers (MTC) web console.

You can use direct image migration and direct volume migration to migrate images or volumes directly from the source cluster to the target cluster. Direct migration improves performance significantly.

Prerequisites
  • You must add source and target clusters and a replication repository to the MTC web console.

  • The clusters must have network access to each other.

  • The clusters must have network access to the replication repository.

  • The clusters must be able to communicate using OpenShift routes on port 443.

  • The clusters must have no Critical conditions.

  • The clusters must be in a Ready state.

  • The migration plan name must not exceed 253 lower-case alphanumeric characters (a-z, 0-9) and must not contain spaces or underscores (_).

  • PV Move copy method: The clusters must have network access to the remote volume.

  • PV Snapshot copy method:

    • The clusters must have the same cloud provider (AWS, GCP, or Azure).

    • The clusters must be located in the same geographic region.

    • The storage class must be the same on the source and target clusters.

  • Direct image migration:

    • The source cluster must have its internal registry exposed to external traffic.

    • The exposed registry route of the source cluster must be added to the cluster configuration using the MTC web console or with the exposedRegistryPath parameter in the MigCluster CR manifest.

  • Direct volume migration:

    • The PVs to be migrated must be valid.

    • The PVs must be in a bound state.

    • The PV migration method must be Copy and the copy method must be filesystem.

Procedure
  1. In the MTC web console, click Migration plans.

  2. Click Add migration plan.

  3. Enter the Plan name and click Next.

  4. Select a Source cluster.

  5. Select a Target cluster.

  6. Select a Replication repository.

  7. Select the projects to be migrated and click Next.

  8. Select a Source cluster, a Target cluster, and a Repository, and click Next.

  9. In the Namespaces screen, select the projects to be migrated and click Next.

  10. In the Persistent volumes screen, click a Migration type for each PV:

    • The Copy option copies the data from the PV of a source cluster to the replication repository and then restores it on a newly created PV, with similar characteristics, in the target cluster.

    • The Move option unmounts a remote volume, for example, NFS, from the source cluster, creates a PV resource on the target cluster pointing to the remote volume, and then mounts the remote volume on the target cluster. Applications running on the target cluster use the same remote volume that the source cluster was using. The remote volume must be accessible to the source and target clusters.

  11. Click Next.

  12. In the Copy options screen, select a Copy method for each PV:

    • Snapshot copy backs up and restores data using the cloud provider’s snapshot functionality. It is significantly faster than Filesystem copy.

    • Filesystem copy backs up the files on the source cluster and restores them on the target cluster.

  13. You can select Verify copy to verify data migrated with Filesystem copy. Data is verified by generating a checksum for each source file and checking the checksum after restoration. Data verification significantly reduces performance.

  14. Select a Target storage class.

    You can change the storage class of data migrated with Filesystem copy.

  15. Click Next.

  16. In the Migration options screen, the Direct image migration option is selected if you specified an exposed image registry route for the source cluster. The Direct PV migration option is selected if you are migrating data with Filesystem copy.

    The direct migration options copy images and files directly from the source cluster to the target cluster. This option is much faster than copying images and files from the source cluster to the replication repository and then from the replication repository to the target cluster.

  17. Click Next.

  18. In the Hooks screen, click Add Hook to add a hook to the migration plan.

  19. Enter the hook name.

  20. If your hook is an Ansible playbook, click Browse to upload the playbook and update the Ansible runtime image field if you are using a custom Ansible image.

  21. If your hook is not an Ansible playbook, click Custom container image and specify the image name and path.

  22. Click Source cluster or Target cluster on which the hook should run.

  23. Enter the Service account name and the Service account namespace of the cluster.

  24. Select the migration step when the hook should run:

    • PreBackup: Before backup tasks are started on the source cluster

    • PostBackup: After backup tasks are complete on the source cluster

    • PreRestore: Before restore tasks are started on the target cluster

    • PostRestore: After restore tasks are complete on the target cluster

  25. Click Add Hook and then click Close.

    You can add up to four hooks to a single migration plan. Each hook runs during a different migration step.

  26. Click Finish and then click Close.

    The migration plan is displayed in the Migration plans list.

Running a migration plan in the MTC web console

You can stage or migrate applications and data with the migration plan you created in the Migration Toolkit for Containers (MTC) web console.

MTC sets the reclaim policy of migrated persistent volumes (PVs) to Retain on the target cluster.

The Backup custom resource contains a PVOriginalReclaimPolicy annotation that indicates the original reclaim policy. You can manually restore the reclaim policy of the migrated PVs.

Prerequisites

The MTC web console must contain the following:

  • Source cluster in a Ready state

  • Target cluster in a Ready state

  • Replication repository

  • Valid migration plan

Procedure
  1. Log in to the source cluster.

  2. Delete old images:

    $ oc adm prune images
  3. Log in to the MTC web console and click Migration plans.

  4. Click the Options menu kebab next to a migration plan and select Stage to copy data from the source cluster to the target cluster without stopping the application.

    You can run Stage multiple times to reduce the actual migration time.

  5. When you are ready to migrate the application workload, the Options menu kebab beside a migration plan and select Migrate.

  6. Optional: In the Migrate window, you can select Do not stop applications on the source cluster during migration.

  7. Click Migrate.

  8. When the migration is complete, verify that the application migrated successfully in the OpenShift Container Platform web console:

    1. Click HomeProjects.

    2. Click the migrated project to view its status.

    3. In the Routes section, click Location to verify that the application is functioning, if applicable.

    4. Click WorkloadsPods to verify that the pods are running in the migrated namespace.

    5. Click StoragePersistent volumes to verify that the migrated persistent volumes are correctly provisioned.

Migrating your applications on the command line

You can migrate your applications on the command line by using the MTC custom resources (CRs).

You can migrate applications from a local cluster to a remote cluster, from a remote cluster to a local cluster, and between remote clusters.

MTC terminology

The following terms are relevant for configuring clusters:

  • host cluster:

    • The migration-controller pod runs on the host cluster.

    • A host cluster does not require an exposed secure registry route for direct image migration.

  • Local cluster: The local cluster is often the same as the host cluster but this is not a requirement.

  • Remote cluster:

    • A remote cluster must have an exposed secure registry route for direct image migration.

    • A remote cluster must have a Secret CR containing the migration-controller service account token.

The following terms are relevant for performing a migration:

  • Source cluster: Cluster from which the applications are migrated.

  • Destination cluster: Cluster to which the applications are migrated.

Migrating your applications with the Migration Toolkit for Containers API

You can migrate your applications on the command line with the Migration Toolkit for Containers (MTC) API.

You can migrate applications from a local cluster to a remote cluster, from a remote cluster to a local cluster, and between remote clusters.

This procedure describes how to perform indirect migration and direct migration:

  • Indirect migration: Images, volumes, and Kubernetes objects are copied from the source cluster to the replication repository and then from the replication repository to the destination cluster.

  • Direct migration: Images or volumes are copied directly from the source cluster to the destination cluster. Direct image migration and direct volume migration have significant performance benefits.

You create the following custom resources (CRs) to perform a migration:

  • MigCluster CR: Defines a host, local, or remote cluster

    The migration-controller pod runs on the host cluster.

  • Secret CR: Contains credentials for a remote cluster or storage

  • MigStorage CR: Defines a replication repository

    Different storage providers require different parameters in the MigStorage CR manifest.

  • MigPlan CR: Defines a migration plan

  • MigMigration CR: Performs a migration defined in an associated MigPlan

    You can create multiple MigMigration CRs for a single MigPlan CR for the following purposes:

  • To perform stage migrations, which copy most of the data without stopping the application, before running a migration. Stage migrations improve the performance of the migration.

  • To cancel a migration in progress

  • To roll back a completed migration

Prerequisites
  • You must have cluster-admin privileges for all clusters.

  • You must install the OpenShift Container Platform CLI (oc).

  • You must install the Migration Toolkit for Containers Operator on all clusters.

  • The version of the installed Migration Toolkit for Containers Operator must be the same on all clusters.

  • You must configure an object storage as a replication repository.

  • If you are using direct image migration, you must expose a secure registry route on all remote clusters.

Procedure
  1. Create a MigCluster CR manifest for the host cluster called host-cluster.yaml:

    apiVersion: migration.openshift.io/v1alpha1
    kind: MigCluster
    metadata:
      name: host
      namespace: openshift-migration
    spec:
      isHostCluster: true
  2. Create a MigCluster CR for the host cluster:

    $ oc create -f host-cluster.yaml -n openshift-migration
  3. Create a Secret CR manifest for each remote cluster called cluster-secret.yaml:

    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Secret
    metadata:
      name: <cluster_secret>
      namespace: openshift-config
    type: Opaque
    data:
      saToken: <sa_token> (1)
    1 Specify the base64-encoded migration-controller service account (SA) token of the remote cluster.

    You can obtain the SA token by running the following command:

    $ oc sa get-token migration-controller -n openshift-migration | base64 -w 0
  4. Create a Secret CR for each remote cluster:

    $ oc create -f cluster-secret.yaml
  5. Create a MigCluster CR manifest for each remote cluster called remote-cluster.yaml:

    apiVersion: migration.openshift.io/v1alpha1
    kind: MigCluster
    metadata:
      name: <remote_cluster>
      namespace: openshift-migration
    spec:
      exposedRegistryPath: <exposed_registry_route> (1)
      insecure: false (2)
      isHostCluster: false
      serviceAccountSecretRef:
        name: <remote_cluster_secret> (3)
        namespace: openshift-config
      url: <remote_cluster_url> (4)
    1 Optional: Specify the exposed registry route, for example, docker-registry-default.apps.example.com if you are using direct image migration.
    2 SSL verification is enabled if false. CA certificates are not required or checked if true.
    3 Specify the Secret CR of the remote cluster.
    4 Specify the URL of the remote cluster.
  6. Create a MigCluster CR for each remote cluster:

    $ oc create -f remote-cluster.yaml -n openshift-migration
  7. Verify that all clusters are in a Ready state:

    $ oc describe cluster <cluster_name>
  8. Create a Secret CR manifest for the replication repository called storage-secret.yaml:

    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Secret
    metadata:
      namespace: openshift-config
      name: <migstorage_creds>
    type: Opaque
    data:
      aws-access-key-id: <key_id_base64> (1)
      aws-secret-access-key: <secret_key_base64> (2)
    1 Specify the key ID in base64 format.
    2 Specify the secret key in base64 format.

    AWS credentials are base64-encoded by default. If you are using another storage provider, you must encode your credentials by running the following command with each key:

    $ echo -n "<key>" | base64 -w 0 (1)
    1 Specify the key ID or the secret key. Both keys must be base64-encoded.
  9. Create the Secret CR for the replication repository:

    $ oc create -f storage-secret.yaml
  10. Create a MigStorage CR manifest for the replication repository called migstorage.yaml:

    apiVersion: migration.openshift.io/v1alpha1
    kind: MigStorage
    metadata:
      name: <storage_name>
      namespace: openshift-migration
    spec:
      backupStorageConfig:
        awsBucketName: <bucket_name> (1)
        credsSecretRef:
          name: <storage_secret_ref> (2)
          namespace: openshift-config
      backupStorageProvider: <storage_provider_name> (3)
      volumeSnapshotConfig:
        credsSecretRef:
          name: <storage_secret_ref> (4)
          namespace: openshift-config
      volumeSnapshotProvider: <storage_provider_name> (5)
    1 Specify the bucket name.
    2 Specify the Secrets CR of the object storage. You must ensure that the credentials stored in the Secrets CR of the object storage are correct.
    3 Specify the storage provider.
    4 Optional: If you are copying data by using snapshots, specify the Secrets CR of the object storage. You must ensure that the credentials stored in the Secrets CR of the object storage are correct.
    5 Optional: If you are copying data by using snapshots, specify the storage provider.
  11. Create the MigStorage CR:

    $ oc create -f migstorage.yaml -n openshift-migration
  12. Verify that the MigStorage CR is in a Ready state:

    $ oc describe migstorage <migstorage_name>
  13. Create a MigPlan CR manifest called migplan.yaml:

    apiVersion: migration.openshift.io/v1alpha1
    kind: MigPlan
    metadata:
      name: <migration_plan>
      namespace: openshift-migration
    spec:
      destMigClusterRef:
        name: host
        namespace: openshift-migration
      indirectImageMigration: true (1)
      indirectVolumeMigration: true (2)
      migStorageRef:
        name: <migstorage_ref> (3)
        namespace: openshift-migration
      namespaces:
        - <application_namespace> (4)
      srcMigClusterRef:
        name: <remote_cluster_ref> (5)
        namespace: openshift-migration
    1 Direct image migration is enabled if false.
    2 Direct volume migration is enabled if false.
    3 Specify the name of the MigStorage CR instance.
    4 Specify one or more namespaces to be migrated.
    5 Specify the name of the source cluster MigCluster instance.
  14. Create the MigPlan CR:

    $ oc create -f migplan.yaml -n openshift-migration
  15. View the MigPlan instance to verify that it is in a Ready state:

    $ oc describe migplan <migplan_name> -n openshift-migration
  16. Create a MigMigration CR manifest called migmigration.yaml:

    apiVersion: migration.openshift.io/v1alpha1
    kind: MigMigration
    metadata:
      name: <migmigration_name>
      namespace: openshift-migration
    spec:
      migPlanRef:
        name: <migplan_name> (1)
        namespace: openshift-migration
      quiescePods: true (2)
      stage: false (3)
      rollback: false (4)
    1 Specify the MigPlan CR name.
    2 The pods on the source cluster are stopped before migration if true.
    3 A stage migration, which copies most of the data without stopping the application, is performed if true.
    4 A completed migration is rolled back if true.
  17. Create the MigMigration CR to start the migration defined in the MigPlan CR:

    $ oc create -f migmigration.yaml -n openshift-migration
  18. Verify the progress of the migration by watching the MigMigration CR:

    $ oc watch migmigration <migmigration_name> -n openshift-migration

    The output resembles the following:

    Example output
    Name:         c8b034c0-6567-11eb-9a4f-0bc004db0fbc
    Namespace:    openshift-migration
    Labels:       migration.openshift.io/migplan-name=django
    Annotations:  openshift.io/touch: e99f9083-6567-11eb-8420-0a580a81020c
    API Version:  migration.openshift.io/v1alpha1
    Kind:         MigMigration
    ...
    Spec:
      Mig Plan Ref:
        Name:       my_application
        Namespace:  openshift-migration
      Stage:        false
    Status:
      Conditions:
        Category:              Advisory
        Last Transition Time:  2021-02-02T15:04:09Z
        Message:               Step: 19/47
        Reason:                InitialBackupCreated
        Status:                True
        Type:                  Running
        Category:              Required
        Last Transition Time:  2021-02-02T15:03:19Z
        Message:               The migration is ready.
        Status:                True
        Type:                  Ready
        Category:              Required
        Durable:               true
        Last Transition Time:  2021-02-02T15:04:05Z
        Message:               The migration registries are healthy.
        Status:                True
        Type:                  RegistriesHealthy
      Itinerary:               Final
      Observed Digest:         7fae9d21f15979c71ddc7dd075cb97061895caac5b936d92fae967019ab616d5
      Phase:                   InitialBackupCreated
      Pipeline:
        Completed:  2021-02-02T15:04:07Z
        Message:    Completed
        Name:       Prepare
        Started:    2021-02-02T15:03:18Z
        Message:    Waiting for initial Velero backup to complete.
        Name:       Backup
        Phase:      InitialBackupCreated
        Progress:
          Backup openshift-migration/c8b034c0-6567-11eb-9a4f-0bc004db0fbc-wpc44: 0 out of estimated total of 0 objects backed up (5s)
        Started:        2021-02-02T15:04:07Z
        Message:        Not started
        Name:           StageBackup
        Message:        Not started
        Name:           StageRestore
        Message:        Not started
        Name:           DirectImage
        Message:        Not started
        Name:           DirectVolume
        Message:        Not started
        Name:           Restore
        Message:        Not started
        Name:           Cleanup
      Start Timestamp:  2021-02-02T15:03:18Z
    Events:
      Type    Reason   Age                 From                     Message
      ----    ------   ----                ----                     -------
      Normal  Running  57s                 migmigration_controller  Step: 2/47
      Normal  Running  57s                 migmigration_controller  Step: 3/47
      Normal  Running  57s (x3 over 57s)   migmigration_controller  Step: 4/47
      Normal  Running  54s                 migmigration_controller  Step: 5/47
      Normal  Running  54s                 migmigration_controller  Step: 6/47
      Normal  Running  52s (x2 over 53s)   migmigration_controller  Step: 7/47
      Normal  Running  51s (x2 over 51s)   migmigration_controller  Step: 8/47
      Normal  Ready    50s (x12 over 57s)  migmigration_controller  The migration is ready.
      Normal  Running  50s                 migmigration_controller  Step: 9/47
      Normal  Running  50s                 migmigration_controller  Step: 10/47

MTC custom resource manifests

Migration Toolkit for Containers (MTC) uses the following custom resource (CR) manifests to create CRs for migrating applications.

DirectImageMigration

The DirectImageMigration CR copies images directly from the source cluster to the destination cluster.

apiVersion: migration.openshift.io/v1alpha1
kind: DirectImageMigration
metadata:
  labels:
    controller-tools.k8s.io: "1.0"
  name: <directimagemigration_name>
spec:
  srcMigClusterRef:
    name: <source_cluster_ref> (1)
    namespace: openshift-migration
  destMigClusterRef:
    name: <destination_cluster_ref> (2)
    namespace: openshift-migration
  namespaces:
  - <namespace> (3)
1 Specify the MigCluster CR name of the source cluster.
2 Specify the MigCluster CR name of the destination cluster.
3 Specify one or more namespaces containing images to be migrated.

DirectImageStreamMigration

The DirectImageStreamMigration CR copies image stream references directly from the source cluster to the destination cluster.

apiVersion: migration.openshift.io/v1alpha1
kind: DirectImageStreamMigration
metadata:
  labels:
    controller-tools.k8s.io: "1.0"
  name: directimagestreammigration_name
spec:
  srcMigClusterRef:
    name: <source_cluster_ref> (1)
    namespace: openshift-migration
  destMigClusterRef:
    name: <destination_cluster_ref> (2)
    namespace: openshift-migration
  imageStreamRef:
    name: <image_stream_name> (3)
    namespace: <source_image_stream_namespace> (4)
  destNamespace: <destination_image_stream_namespace> (5)
1 Specify the MigCluster CR name of the source cluster.
2 Specify the MigCluster CR name of the destination cluster.
3 Specify the image stream name.
4 Specify the image stream namespace on the source cluster.
5 Specify the image stream namespace on the destination cluster.

DirectVolumeMigration

The DirectVolumeMigration CR copies persistent volumes (PVs) directly from the source cluster to the destination cluster.

apiVersion: migration.openshift.io/v1alpha1
kind: DirectVolumeMigration
metadata:
  name: <directvolumemigration_name>
  namespace: openshift-migration
spec:
  createDestinationNamespaces: false (1)
  deleteProgressReportingCRs: false (2)
  destMigClusterRef:
    name: host (3)
    namespace: openshift-migration
  persistentVolumeClaims:
  - name: <pvc_name> (4)
    namespace: <pvc_namespace> (5)
  srcMigClusterRef:
    name: <source_cluster_ref> (6)
    namespace: openshift-migration
1 Namespaces are created for the PVs on the destination cluster if true.
2 The DirectVolumeMigrationProgress CRs are deleted after migration if true. The default value is false so that DirectVolumeMigrationProgress CRs are retained for troubleshooting.
3 Update the cluster name if the destination cluster is not the host cluster.
4 Specify one or more PVCs to be migrated with direct volume migration.
5 Specify the namespace of each PVC.
6 Specify the MigCluster CR name of the source cluster.

DirectVolumeMigrationProgress

The DirectVolumeMigrationProgress CR shows the progress of the DirectVolumeMigration CR.

apiVersion: migration.openshift.io/v1alpha1
kind: DirectVolumeMigrationProgress
metadata:
  labels:
    controller-tools.k8s.io: "1.0"
  name: directvolumemigrationprogress_name
spec:
  clusterRef:
    name: source_cluster
    namespace: openshift-migration
  podRef:
    name: rsync_pod
    namespace: openshift-migration

MigAnalytic

The MigAnalytic CR collects the number of images, Kubernetes resources, and the PV capacity from an associated MigPlan CR.

apiVersion: migration.openshift.io/v1alpha1
kind: MigAnalytic
metadata:
  annotations:
    migplan: <migplan_name> (1)
  name: miganalytic_name
  namespace: openshift-migration
  labels:
    migplan: <migplan_name> (2)
spec:
  analyzeImageCount: true (3)
  analyzeK8SResources: true (4)
  analyzePVCapacity: true (5)
  listImages: false (6)
  listImagesLimit: 50 (7)
  migPlanRef:
    name: migplan_name (8)
    namespace: openshift-migration
1 Specify the MigPlan CR name associated with the MigAnalytic CR.
2 Specify the MigPlan CR name associated with the MigAnalytic CR.
3 Optional: The number of images is returned if true.
4 Optional: Returns the number, kind, and API version of the Kubernetes resources if true.
5 Optional: Returns the PV capacity if true.
6 Returns a list of image names if true. Default is false so that the output is not excessively long.
7 Optional: Specify the maximum number of image names to return if listImages is true.
8 Specify the MigPlan CR name associated with the MigAnalytic CR.

MigCluster

The MigCluster CR defines a host, local, or remote cluster.

apiVersion: migration.openshift.io/v1alpha1
kind: MigCluster
metadata:
  labels:
    controller-tools.k8s.io: "1.0"
  name: host (1)
  namespace: openshift-migration
spec:
  isHostCluster: true (2)
  azureResourceGroup: <azure_resource_group> (3)
  caBundle: <ca_bundle_base64> (4)
  insecure: false (5)
  refresh: false (6)
# The 'restartRestic' parameter is relevant for a source cluster.
# restartRestic: true (7)
# The following parameters are relevant for a remote cluster.
# isHostCluster: false
# exposedRegistryPath: (8)
# url: <destination_cluster_url> (9)
# serviceAccountSecretRef:
#   name: <source_secret_ref> (10)
#   namespace: openshift-config
1 Optional: Update the cluster name if the migration-controller pod is not running on this cluster.
2 The migration-controller pod runs on this cluster if true.
3 Optional: If the storage provider is Microsoft Azure, specify the resource group.
4 Optional: If you created a certificate bundle for self-signed CA certificates and if the insecure parameter value is false, specify the base64-encoded certificate bundle.
5 SSL verification is enabled if false.
6 The cluster is validated if true.
7 The restic pods are restarted on the source cluster after the stage pods are created if true.
8 Optional: If you are using direct image migration, specify the exposed registry path of a remote cluster.
9 Specify the URL of the remote cluster.
10 Specify the name of the Secret CR for the remote cluster.

MigHook

The MigHook CR defines an Ansible playbook or a custom image that runs tasks at a specified stage of the migration.

apiVersion: migration.openshift.io/v1alpha1
kind: MigHook
metadata:
  generateName: <hook_name_prefix> (1)
  name: <hook_name> (2)
  namespace: openshift-migration
spec:
  activeDeadlineSeconds: (3)
  custom: false (4)
  image: <hook_image> (5)
  playbook: <ansible_playbook_base64> (6)
  targetCluster: source (7)
1 Optional: A unique hash is appended to the value for this parameter so that each migration hook has a unique name. You do not need to specify the value of the name parameter.
2 Specify the migration hook name, unless you specify the value of the generateName parameter.
3 Optional: Specify the maximum number of seconds that a hook can run. The default value is 1800.
4 The hook is a custom image if true. The custom image can include Ansible or it can be written in a different programming language.
5 Specify the custom image, for example, quay.io/konveyor/hook-runner:latest. Required if custom is true.
6 Specify the entire base64-encoded Ansible playbook. Required if custom is false.
7 Specify source or destination as the cluster on which the hook will run.

MigMigration

The MigMigration CR runs an associated MigPlan CR.

You can create multiple MigMigration CRs associated with the same MigPlan CR for the following scenarios:

  • You can run multiple stage or incremental migrations to copy data without stopping the pods on the source cluster. Running stage migrations improves the performance of the actual migration.

  • You can cancel a migration in progress.

  • You can roll back a migration.

apiVersion: migration.openshift.io/v1alpha1
kind: MigMigration
metadata:
  labels:
    controller-tools.k8s.io: "1.0"
  name: migmigration_name
  namespace: openshift-migration
spec:
  canceled: false (1)
  rollback: false (2)
  stage: false (3)
  quiescePods: true (4)
  keepAnnotations: true (5)
  verify: false (6)
  migPlanRef:
    name: <migplan_ref> (7)
    namespace: openshift-migration
1 A migration in progress is canceled if true.
2 A completed migration is rolled back if true.
3 Data is copied incrementally and the pods on the source cluster are not stopped if true.
4 The pods on the source cluster are scaled to 0 after the Backup stage of a migration if true.
5 The labels and annotations applied during the migration are retained if true.
6 The status of the migrated pods on the destination cluster are checked and the names of pods that are not in a Running state are returned if true.
7 migPlanRef.name: Specify the name of the associated MigPlan CR.

MigPlan

The MigPlan CR defines the parameters of a migration plan. It contains a group of virtual machines that are being migrated with the same parameters.

apiVersion: migration.openshift.io/v1alpha1
kind: MigPlan
metadata:
  labels:
    controller-tools.k8s.io: "1.0"
  name: migplan_name
  namespace: openshift-migration
spec:
  closed: false (1)
  srcMigClusterRef:
    name: <source_migcluster_ref> (2)
    namespace: openshift-migration
  destMigClusterRef:
    name: <destination_migcluster_ref> (3)
    namespace: openshift-migration
  hooks: (4)
    - executionNamespace: openshift-migration
      phase: <migration_phase> (5)
      reference:
        name: <hook_name> (6)
        namespace: openshift-migration
      serviceAccount: migration-controller
  indirectImageMigration: true (7)
  indirectVolumeMigration: false (8)
  migStorageRef:
    name: <migstorage_name> (9)
    namespace: openshift-migration
  namespaces:
  - <namespace>  (10)
  refresh: false  (11)
1 The migration has completed if true. You cannot create another MigMigration CR for this MigPlan CR.
2 Specify the name of the source cluster MigCluster CR.
3 Specify the name of the destination cluster MigCluster CR.
4 Optional: You can specify up to four migration hooks.
5 Optional: Specify the migration phase during which a hook runs. One hook can be assigned to one phase. The expected values are PreBackup, PostBackup, PreRestore, and PostRestore.
6 Optional: Specify the name of the MigHook CR.
7 Direct image migration is disabled if true. Images are copied from the source cluster to the replication repository and from the replication repository to the destination cluster.
8 Direct volume migration is disabled if true. PVs are copied from the source cluster to the replication repository and from the replication repository to the destination cluster.
9 Specify the name of MigStorage CR.
10 Specify one or more namespaces.
11 The MigPlan CR is validated if true.

MigStorage

The MigStorage CR describes the object storage for the replication repository. You can configure Amazon Web Services, Microsoft Azure, Google Cloud Storage, and generic S3-compatible cloud storage, for example, Minio or NooBaa.

Different providers require different parameters.

apiVersion: migration.openshift.io/v1alpha1
kind: MigStorage
metadata:
  labels:
    controller-tools.k8s.io: "1.0"
  name: migstorage_name
  namespace: openshift-migration
spec:
  backupStorageProvider: <storage_provider> (1)
  volumeSnapshotProvider: (2)
  backupStorageConfig:
    awsBucketName: (3)
    awsRegion: (4)
    credsSecretRef:
      namespace: openshift-config
      name: <storage_secret> (5)
    awsKmsKeyId: (6)
    awsPublicUrl: (7)
    awsSignatureVersion: (8)
  volumeSnapshotConfig:
    awsRegion: (9)
    credsSecretRef:
      namespace: openshift-config
      name: (10)
  refresh: false (11)
1 Specify the storage provider.
2 Optional: If you are using the snapshot copy method, specify the storage provider.
3 If you are using AWS, specify the bucket name.
4 If you are using AWS, specify the bucket region, for example, us-east-1.
5 Specify the name of the Secret CR that you created for the MigStorage CR.
6 Optional: If you are using the AWS Key Management Service, specify the unique identifier of the key.
7 Optional: If you granted public access to the AWS bucket, specify the bucket URL.
8 Optional: Specify the AWS signature version for authenticating requests to the bucket, for example, 4.
9 Optional: If you are using the snapshot copy method, specify the geographical region of the clusters.
10 Optional: If you are using the snapshot copy method, specify the name of the Secret CR that you created for the MigStorage CR.
11 The cluster is validated if true.

Configuring a migration plan

You can configure a migration plan by increasing the number of objects migrated or excluding resources from migration.

Increasing limits for large migrations

You can increase the limits on migration objects and container resources for large migrations with the Migration Toolkit for Containers (MTC).

You must test these changes before you perform a migration in a production environment.

Procedure
  1. Edit the MigrationController CR manifest:

    $ oc edit migrationcontroller -n openshift-migration
  2. Update the following parameters:

    ...
    mig_controller_limits_cpu: "1" (1)
    mig_controller_limits_memory: "10Gi" (2)
    ...
    mig_controller_requests_cpu: "100m" (3)
    mig_controller_requests_memory: "350Mi" (4)
    ...
    mig_pv_limit: 100 (5)
    mig_pod_limit: 100 (6)
    mig_namespace_limit: 10 (7)
    ...
    1 Specifies the number of CPUs available to the MigrationController CR.
    2 Specifies the amount of memory available to the MigrationController CR.
    3 Specifies the number of CPU units available for MigrationController CR requests. 100m represents 0.1 CPU units (100 * 1e-3).
    4 Specifies the amount of memory available for MigrationController CR requests.
    5 Specifies the number of persistent volumes that can be migrated.
    6 Specifies the number of pods that can be migrated.
    7 Specifies the number of namespaces that can be migrated.
  3. Create a migration plan that uses the updated parameters to verify the changes.

    If your migration plan exceeds the MigrationController CR limits, the MTC console displays a warning message when you save the migration plan.

Excluding resources from a migration plan

You can exclude resources, for example, image streams, persistent volumes (PVs), or subscriptions, from a Migration Toolkit for Containers (MTC) migration plan in order to reduce the resource load for migration or to migrate images or PVs with a different tool.

By default, the MTC excludes service catalog resources and Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) resources from migration. These resources are parts of the service catalog API group and the OLM API group, neither of which is supported for migration at this time.

Procedure
  1. Edit the MigrationController CR manifest:

    $ oc edit migrationcontroller -n openshift-migration
  2. Update the spec section by adding a parameter to exclude specific resources or by adding a resource to the excluded_resources parameter if it does not have its own exclusion parameter:

    apiVersion: migration.openshift.io/v1alpha1
    kind: MigrationController
    metadata:
      name: migration-controller
      namespace: openshift-migration
    spec:
      disable_image_migration: true (1)
      disable_pv_migration: true (2)
      ...
      excluded_resources: (3)
      - imagetags
      - templateinstances
      - clusterserviceversions
      - packagemanifests
      - subscriptions
      - servicebrokers
      - servicebindings
      - serviceclasses
      - serviceinstances
      - serviceplans
      - operatorgroups
      - events
    1 Add disable_image_migration: true to exclude image streams from the migration. Do not edit the excluded_resources parameter. imagestreams is added to excluded_resources when the MigrationController pod restarts.
    2 Add disable_pv_migration: true to exclude PVs from the migration plan. Do not edit the excluded_resources parameter. persistentvolumes and persistentvolumeclaims are added to excluded_resources when the MigrationController pod restarts. Disabling PV migration also disables PV discovery when you create the migration plan.
    3 You can add OpenShift Container Platform resources to the excluded_resources list. Do not delete the default excluded resources. These resources are problematic to migrate and must be excluded.
  3. Wait two minutes for the MigrationController pod to restart so that the changes are applied.

  4. Verify that the resource is excluded:

    $ oc get deployment -n openshift-migration migration-controller -o yaml | grep EXCLUDED_RESOURCES -A1

    The output contains the excluded resources:

    Example output
        - name: EXCLUDED_RESOURCES
          value:
          imagetags,templateinstances,clusterserviceversions,packagemanifests,subscriptions,servicebrokers,servicebindings,serviceclasses,serviceinstances,serviceplans,imagestreams,persistentvolumes,persistentvolumeclaims