In OpenShift Container Platform version 4.5, you can install a cluster on Microsoft Azure by using infrastructure that you provide.

Several Azure Resource Manager (ARM) templates are provided to assist in completing these steps or to help model your own. You can also create the required resources through other methods; the templates are just an example.

Prerequisites

Internet and Telemetry access for OpenShift Container Platform

In OpenShift Container Platform 4.5, you require access to the internet to install your cluster. The Telemetry service, which runs by default to provide metrics about cluster health and the success of updates, also requires internet access. If your cluster is connected to the internet, Telemetry runs automatically, and your cluster is registered to the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager (OCM).

Once you confirm that your Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager inventory is correct, either maintained automatically by Telemetry or manually using OCM, use subscription watch to track your OpenShift Container Platform subscriptions at the account or multi-cluster level.

You must have internet access to:

  • Access the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager page to download the installation program and perform subscription management. If the cluster has internet access and you do not disable Telemetry, that service automatically entitles your cluster.

  • Access Quay.io to obtain the packages that are required to install your cluster.

  • Obtain the packages that are required to perform cluster updates.

If your cluster cannot have direct internet access, you can perform a restricted network installation on some types of infrastructure that you provision. During that process, you download the content that is required and use it to populate a mirror registry with the packages that you need to install a cluster and generate the installation program. With some installation types, the environment that you install your cluster in will not require internet access. Before you update the cluster, you update the content of the mirror registry.

Configuring your Azure project

Before you can install OpenShift Container Platform, you must configure an Azure project to host it.

All Azure resources that are available through public endpoints are subject to resource name restrictions, and you cannot create resources that use certain terms. For a list of terms that Azure restricts, see Resolve reserved resource name errors in the Azure documentation.

Azure account limits

The OpenShift Container Platform cluster uses a number of Microsoft Azure components, and the default Azure subscription and service limits, quotas, and constraints affect your ability to install OpenShift Container Platform clusters.

Default limits vary by offer category types, such as Free Trial and Pay-As-You-Go, and by series, such as Dv2, F, and G. For example, the default for Enterprise Agreement subscriptions is 350 cores.

Check the limits for your subscription type and if necessary, increase quota limits for your account before you install a default cluster on Azure.

The following table summarizes the Azure components whose limits can impact your ability to install and run OpenShift Container Platform clusters.

Component Number of components required by default Default Azure limit Description

vCPU

40

20 per region

A default cluster requires 40 vCPUs, so you must increase the account limit.

By default, each cluster creates the following instances:

  • One bootstrap machine, which is removed after installation

  • Three control plane machines

  • Three compute machines

Because the bootstrap machine uses Standard_D4s_v3 machines, which use 4 vCPUs, the control plane machines use Standard_D8s_v3 virtual machines, which use 8 vCPUs, and the worker machines use Standard_D4s_v3 virtual machines, which use 4 vCPUs, a default cluster requires 40 vCPUs. The bootstrap node VM, which uses 4 vCPUs, is used only during installation.

To deploy more worker nodes, enable autoscaling, deploy large workloads, or use a different instance type, you must further increase the vCPU limit for your account to ensure that your cluster can deploy the machines that you require.

By default, the installation program distributes control plane and compute machines across all availability zones within a region. To ensure high availability for your cluster, select a region with at least three availablity zones. If your region contains fewer than three availability zones, the installation program places more than one control plane machine in the available zones.

VNet

1

1000 per region

Each default cluster requires one Virtual Network (VNet), which contains two subnets.

Network interfaces

6

65,536 per region

Each default cluster requires six network interfaces. If you create more machines or your deployed workloads create load balancers, your cluster uses more network interfaces.

Network security groups

2

5000

Each default cluster Each cluster creates network security groups for each subnet in the VNet. The default cluster creates network security groups for the control plane and for the compute node subnets:

controlplane

Allows the control plane machines to be reached on port 6443 from anywhere

node

Allows worker nodes to be reached from the internet on ports 80 and 443

Network load balancers

3

1000 per region

Each cluster creates the following load balancers:

default

Public IP address that load balances requests to ports 80 and 443 across worker machines

internal

Private IP address that load balances requests to ports 6443 and 22623 across control plane machines

external

Public IP address that load balances requests to port 6443 across control plane machines

If your applications create more Kubernetes LoadBalancer Service objects, your cluster uses more load balancers.

Public IP addresses

3

Each of the two public load balancers uses a public IP address. The bootstrap machine also uses a public IP address so that you can SSH into the machine to troubleshoot issues during installation. The IP address for the bootstrap node is used only during installation.

Private IP addresses

7

The internal loadbalancer, each of the three control plane machines, and each of the three worker machines each use a private IP address.

Configuring a public DNS zone in Azure

To install OpenShift Container Platform, the Microsoft Azure account you use must have a dedicated public hosted DNS zone in your account. This zone must be authoritative for the domain. This service provides cluster DNS resolution and name lookup for external connections to the cluster.

Procedure
  1. Identify your domain, or subdomain, and registrar. You can transfer an existing domain and registrar or obtain a new one through Azure or another source.

    For more information about purchasing domains through Azure, see Buy a custom domain name for Azure App Service in the Azure documentation.

  2. If you are using an existing domain and registrar, migrate its DNS to Azure. See Migrate an active DNS name to Azure App Service in the Azure documentation.

  3. Configure DNS for your domain. Follow the steps in the Tutorial: Host your domain in Azure DNS in the Azure documentation to create a public hosted zone for your domain or subdomain, extract the new authoritative name servers, and update the registrar records for the name servers that your domain uses.

    Use an appropriate root domain, such as openshiftcorp.com, or subdomain, such as clusters.openshiftcorp.com.

  4. If you use a subdomain, follow your company’s procedures to add its delegation records to the parent domain.

You can view Azure’s DNS solution by visiting this example for creating DNS zones.

Increasing Azure account limits

To increase an account limit, file a support request on the Azure portal.

You can increase only one type of quota per support request.

Procedure
  1. From the Azure portal, click Help + support in the lower left corner.

  2. Click New support request and then select the required values:

    1. From the Issue type list, select Service and subscription limits (quotas).

    2. From the Subscription list, select the subscription to modify.

    3. From the Quota type list, select the quota to increase. For example, select Compute-VM (cores-vCPUs) subscription limit increases to increase the number of vCPUs, which is required to install a cluster.

    4. Click Next: Solutions.

  3. On the PROBLEM DETAILS page, provide the required information for your quota increase:

    1. Click Provide details and provide the required details in the "Quota details" window.

    2. In the SUPPORT METHOD and CONTACT INFO sections, provide the issue severity and your contact details.

  4. Click Next: Review + create and then click Create.

Certificate signing requests management

Because your cluster has limited access to automatic machine management when you use infrastructure that you provision, you must provide a mechanism for approving cluster certificate signing requests (CSRs) after installation. The kube-controller-manager only approves the kubelet client CSRs. The machine-approver cannot guarantee the validity of a serving certificate that is requested by using kubelet credentials because it cannot confirm that the correct machine issued the request. You must determine and implement a method of verifying the validity of the kubelet serving certificate requests and approving them.

Required Azure roles

Your Microsoft Azure account must have the following roles for the subscription that you use:

  • User Access Administrator

To set roles on the Azure portal, see the Manage access to Azure resources using RBAC and the Azure portal in the Azure documentation.

Creating a service principal

Because OpenShift Container Platform and its installation program must create Microsoft Azure resources through Azure Resource Manager, you must create a service principal to represent it.

Prerequisites
  • Install or update the Azure CLI.

  • Install the jq package.

  • Your Azure account has the required roles for the subscription that you use.

Procedure
  1. Log in to the Azure CLI:

    $ az login

    Log in to Azure in the web console by using your credentials.

  2. If your Azure account uses subscriptions, ensure that you are using the right subscription.

    1. View the list of available accounts and record the tenantId value for the subscription you want to use for your cluster:

      $ az account list --refresh
      Example output
      [
        {
          "cloudName": "AzureCloud",
          "id": "9bab1460-96d5-40b3-a78e-17b15e978a80",
          "isDefault": true,
          "name": "Subscription Name",
          "state": "Enabled",
          "tenantId": "6057c7e9-b3ae-489d-a54e-de3f6bf6a8ee",
          "user": {
            "name": "you@example.com",
            "type": "user"
          }
        }
      ]
    2. View your active account details and confirm that the tenantId matches the subscription you want to use:

      $ az account show
      Example output
      {
        "environmentName": "AzureCloud",
        "id": "9bab1460-96d5-40b3-a78e-17b15e978a80",
        "isDefault": true,
        "name": "Subscription Name",
        "state": "Enabled",
        "tenantId": "6057c7e9-b3ae-489d-a54e-de3f6bf6a8ee", (1)
        "user": {
          "name": "you@example.com",
          "type": "user"
        }
      }
      1 Ensure that the value of the tenantId parameter is the UUID of the correct subscription.
    3. If you are not using the right subscription, change the active subscription:

      $ az account set -s <id> (1)
      1 Substitute the value of the id for the subscription that you want to use for <id>.
    4. If you changed the active subscription, display your account information again:

      $ az account show
      Example output
      {
        "environmentName": "AzureCloud",
        "id": "33212d16-bdf6-45cb-b038-f6565b61edda",
        "isDefault": true,
        "name": "Subscription Name",
        "state": "Enabled",
        "tenantId": "8049c7e9-c3de-762d-a54e-dc3f6be6a7ee",
        "user": {
          "name": "you@example.com",
          "type": "user"
        }
      }
  3. Record the values of the tenantId and id parameters from the previous output. You need these values during OpenShift Container Platform installation.

  4. Create the service principal for your account:

    $ az ad sp create-for-rbac --role Contributor --name <service_principal> (1)
    1 Replace <service_principal> with the name to assign to the service principal.
    Example output
    Changing "<service_principal>" to a valid URI of "http://<service_principal>", which is the required format used for service principal names
    Retrying role assignment creation: 1/36
    Retrying role assignment creation: 2/36
    Retrying role assignment creation: 3/36
    Retrying role assignment creation: 4/36
    {
      "appId": "8bd0d04d-0ac2-43a8-928d-705c598c6956",
      "displayName": "<service_principal>",
      "name": "http://<service_principal>",
      "password": "ac461d78-bf4b-4387-ad16-7e32e328aec6",
      "tenant": "6048c7e9-b2ad-488d-a54e-dc3f6be6a7ee"
    }
  5. Record the values of the appId and password parameters from the previous output. You need these values during OpenShift Container Platform installation.

  6. Grant additional permissions to the service principal. The service principal requires the legacy Azure Active Directory Graph → Application.ReadWrite.OwnedBy permission and the User Access Administrator role for the cluster to assign credentials for its components.

    1. To assign the User Access Administrator role, run the following command:

      $ az role assignment create --role "User Access Administrator" \
          --assignee-object-id $(az ad sp list --filter "appId eq '<appId>'" \ (1)
             | jq '.[0].objectId' -r)
      1 Replace <appId> with the appId parameter value for your service principal.
    2. To assign the Azure Active Directory Graph permission, run the following command:

      $ az ad app permission add --id <appId> \ (1)
           --api 00000002-0000-0000-c000-000000000000 \
           --api-permissions 824c81eb-e3f8-4ee6-8f6d-de7f50d565b7=Role
      1 Replace <appId> with the appId parameter value for your service principal.
      Example output
      Invoking "az ad app permission grant --id 46d33abc-b8a3-46d8-8c84-f0fd58177435 --api 00000002-0000-0000-c000-000000000000" is needed to make the change effective

      For more information about the specific permissions that you grant with this command, see the GUID Table for Windows Azure Active Directory Permissions.

    3. Approve the permissions request. If your account does not have the Azure Active Directory tenant administrator role, follow the guidelines for your organization to request that the tenant administrator approve your permissions request.

      $ az ad app permission grant --id <appId> \ (1)
           --api 00000002-0000-0000-c000-000000000000
      1 Replace <appId> with the appId parameter value for your service principal.

Supported Azure regions

The installation program dynamically generates the list of available Microsoft Azure regions based on your subscription. The following Azure regions were tested and validated in OpenShift Container Platform version 4.5.4:

  • australiacentral (Australia Central)

  • australiaeast (Australia East)

  • australiasoutheast (Australia South East)

  • brazilsouth (Brazil South)

  • canadacentral (Canada Central)

  • canadaeast (Canada East)

  • centralindia (Central India)

  • centralus (Central US)

  • eastasia (East Asia)

  • eastus (East US)

  • eastus2 (East US 2)

  • francecentral (France Central)

  • germanywestcentral (Germany West Central)

  • japaneast (Japan East)

  • japanwest (Japan West)

  • koreacentral (Korea Central)

  • koreasouth (Korea South)

  • northcentralus (North Central US)

  • northeurope (North Europe)

  • norwayeast (Norway East)

  • southafricanorth (South Africa North)

  • southcentralus (South Central US)

  • southeastasia (Southeast Asia)

  • southindia (South India)

  • switzerlandnorth (Switzerland North)

  • uaenorth (UAE North)

  • uksouth (UK South)

  • ukwest (UK West)

  • westcentralus (West Central US)

  • westeurope (West Europe)

  • westindia (West India)

  • westus (West US)

  • westus2 (West US 2)

Obtaining the installation program

Before you install OpenShift Container Platform, download the installation file on a local computer.

Prerequisites
  • You must install the cluster from a computer that uses Linux or macOS.

  • You need 500 MB of local disk space to download the installation program.

Procedure
  1. Access the Infrastructure Provider page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site. If you have a Red Hat account, log in with your credentials. If you do not, create an account.

  2. Navigate to the page for your installation type, download the installation program for your operating system, and place the file in the directory where you will store the installation configuration files.

    The installation program creates several files on the computer that you use to install your cluster. You must keep both the installation program and the files that the installation program creates after you finish installing the cluster.

    Deleting the files created by the installation program does not remove your cluster, even if the cluster failed during installation. You must complete the OpenShift Container Platform uninstallation procedures outlined for your specific cloud provider to remove your cluster entirely.

  3. Extract the installation program. For example, on a computer that uses a Linux operating system, run the following command:

    $ tar xvf <installation_program>.tar.gz
  4. From the Pull Secret page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site, download your installation pull secret as a .txt file. This pull secret allows you to authenticate with the services that are provided by the included authorities, including Quay.io, which serves the container images for OpenShift Container Platform components.

Generating an SSH private key and adding it to the agent

If you want to perform installation debugging or disaster recovery on your cluster, you must provide an SSH key to both your ssh-agent and to the installation program.

In a production environment, you require disaster recovery and debugging.

You can use this key to SSH into the master nodes as the user core. When you deploy the cluster, the key is added to the core user’s ~/.ssh/authorized_keys list.

You must use a local key, not one that you configured with platform-specific approaches such as AWS key pairs.

Procedure
  1. If you do not have an SSH key that is configured for password-less authentication on your computer, create one. For example, on a computer that uses a Linux operating system, run the following command:

    $ ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 4096 -N '' \
        -f <path>/<file_name> (1)
    1 Specify the path and file name, such as ~/.ssh/id_rsa, of the SSH key. Do not specify an existing SSH key, as it will be overwritten.

    Running this command generates an SSH key that does not require a password in the location that you specified.

  2. Start the ssh-agent process as a background task:

    $ eval "$(ssh-agent -s)"
    Example output
    Agent pid 31874
  3. Add your SSH private key to the ssh-agent:

    $ ssh-add <path>/<file_name> (1)
    Example output
    Identity added: /home/<you>/<path>/<file_name> (<computer_name>)
    1 Specify the path and file name for your SSH private key, such as ~/.ssh/id_rsa
Next steps
  • When you install OpenShift Container Platform, provide the SSH public key to the installation program. If you install a cluster on infrastructure that you provision, you must provide this key to your cluster’s machines.

Creating the installation files for Azure

To install OpenShift Container Platform on Microsoft Azure using user-provisioned infrastructure, you must generate the files that the installation program needs to deploy your cluster and modify them so that the cluster creates only the machines that it will use. You generate and customize the install-config.yaml file, Kubernetes manifests, and Ignition config files.

Creating the installation configuration file

You can customize the OpenShift Container Platform cluster you install on Microsoft Azure.

Prerequisites
  • Obtain the OpenShift Container Platform installation program and the pull secret for your cluster.

Procedure
  1. Create the install-config.yaml file.

    1. Run the following command:

      $ ./openshift-install create install-config --dir=<installation_directory> (1)
      1 For <installation_directory>, specify the directory name to store the files that the installation program creates.

      Specify an empty directory. Some installation assets, like bootstrap X.509 certificates have short expiration intervals, so you must not reuse an installation directory. If you want to reuse individual files from another cluster installation, you can copy them into your directory. However, the file names for the installation assets might change between releases. Use caution when copying installation files from an earlier OpenShift Container Platform version.

    2. At the prompts, provide the configuration details for your cloud:

      1. Optional: Select an SSH key to use to access your cluster machines.

        For production OpenShift Container Platform clusters on which you want to perform installation debugging or disaster recovery, specify an SSH key that your ssh-agent process uses.

      2. Select azure as the platform to target.

      3. If you do not have a Microsoft Azure profile stored on your computer, specify the following Azure parameter values for your subscription and service principal:

        • azure subscription id: The subscription ID to use for the cluster. Specify the id value in your account output.

        • azure tenant id: The tenant ID. Specify the tenantId value in your account output.

        • azure service principal client id: The value of the appId parameter for the service principal.

        • azure service principal client secret: The value of the password parameter for the service principal.

      4. Select the region to deploy the cluster to.

      5. Select the base domain to deploy the cluster to. The base domain corresponds to the Azure DNS Zone that you created for your cluster.

      6. Enter a descriptive name for your cluster.

        All Azure resources that are available through public endpoints are subject to resource name restrictions, and you cannot create resources that use certain terms. For a list of terms that Azure restricts, see Resolve reserved resource name errors in the Azure documentation.

      7. Paste the pull secret that you obtained from the Pull Secret page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site.

  2. Modify the install-config.yaml file. You can find more information about the available parameters in the Installation configuration parameters section.

  3. Back up the install-config.yaml file so that you can use it to install multiple clusters.

    The install-config.yaml file is consumed during the installation process. If you want to reuse the file, you must back it up now.

Configuring the cluster-wide proxy during installation

Production environments can deny direct access to the Internet and instead have an HTTP or HTTPS proxy available. You can configure a new OpenShift Container Platform cluster to use a proxy by configuring the proxy settings in the install-config.yaml file.

Prerequisites
  • An existing install-config.yaml file.

  • Review the sites that your cluster requires access to and determine whether any need to bypass the proxy. By default, all cluster egress traffic is proxied, including calls to hosting cloud provider APIs. Add sites to the Proxy object’s spec.noProxy field to bypass the proxy if necessary.

    The Proxy object’s status.noProxy field is populated by default with the instance metadata endpoint (169.254.169.254) and with the values of the networking.machineNetwork[].cidr, networking.clusterNetwork[].cidr, and networking.serviceNetwork[] fields from your installation configuration.

Procedure
  1. Edit your install-config.yaml file and add the proxy settings. For example:

    apiVersion: v1
    baseDomain: my.domain.com
    proxy:
      httpProxy: http://<username>:<pswd>@<ip>:<port> (1)
      httpsProxy: http://<username>:<pswd>@<ip>:<port> (2)
      noProxy: example.com (3)
    additionalTrustBundle: | (4)
        -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
        <MY_TRUSTED_CA_CERT>
        -----END CERTIFICATE-----
    ...
    1 A proxy URL to use for creating HTTP connections outside the cluster. The URL scheme must be http. If you use an MITM transparent proxy network that does not require additional proxy configuration but requires additional CAs, you must not specify an httpProxy value.
    2 A proxy URL to use for creating HTTPS connections outside the cluster. If this field is not specified, then httpProxy is used for both HTTP and HTTPS connections. If you use an MITM transparent proxy network that does not require additional proxy configuration but requires additional CAs, you must not specify an httpsProxy value.
    3 A comma-separated list of destination domain names, domains, IP addresses, or other network CIDRs to exclude proxying. Preface a domain with . to include all subdomains of that domain. Use * to bypass proxy for all destinations.
    4 If provided, the installation program generates a ConfigMap that is named user-ca-bundle in the openshift-config namespace that contains one or more additional CA certificates that are required for proxying HTTPS connections. The Cluster Network Operator then creates a trusted-ca-bundle ConfigMap that merges these contents with the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) trust bundle, and this ConfigMap is referenced in the Proxy object’s trustedCA field. The additionalTrustBundle field is required unless the proxy’s identity certificate is signed by an authority from the RHCOS trust bundle. If you use an MITM transparent proxy network that does not require additional proxy configuration but requires additional CAs, you must provide the MITM CA certificate.

    The installation program does not support the proxy readinessEndpoints field.

  2. Save the file and reference it when installing OpenShift Container Platform.

The installation program creates a cluster-wide proxy that is named cluster that uses the proxy settings in the provided install-config.yaml file. If no proxy settings are provided, a cluster Proxy object is still created, but it will have a nil spec.

Only the Proxy object named cluster is supported, and no additional proxies can be created.

Exporting common variables for ARM templates

You must export a common set of variables that are used with the provided Azure Resource Manager (ARM) templates used to assist in completing a user-provided infrastructure install on Microsoft Azure.

Specific ARM templates can also require additional exported variables, which are detailed in their related procedures.

Prerequisites
  • Obtain the OpenShift Container Platform installation program and the pull secret for your cluster.

Procedure
  1. Export common variables found in the install-config.yaml to be used by the provided ARM templates:

    $ export CLUSTER_NAME=<cluster_name>(1)
    $ export AZURE_REGION=<azure_region>(2)
    $ export SSH_KEY=<ssh_key>(3)
    $ export BASE_DOMAIN=<base_domain>(4)
    $ export BASE_DOMAIN_RESOURCE_GROUP=<base_domain_resource_group>(5)
    1 The value of the .metadata.name attribute from the install-config.yaml file.
    2 The region to deploy the cluster into, for example centralus. This is the value of the .platform.azure.region attribute from the install-config.yaml file.
    3 The SSH RSA public key file as a string. You must enclose the SSH key in quotes since it contains spaces. This is the value of the .sshKey attribute from the install-config.yaml file.
    4 The base domain to deploy the cluster to. The base domain corresponds to the public DNS zone that you created for your cluster. This is the value of the .baseDomain attribute from the install-config.yaml file.
    5 The resource group where the public DNS zone exists. This is the value of the .platform.azure.baseDomainResourceGroupName attribute from the install-config.yaml file.

    For example:

    $ export CLUSTER_NAME=test-cluster
    $ export AZURE_REGION=centralus
    $ export SSH_KEY="ssh-rsa xxx/xxx/xxx= user@email.com"
    $ export BASE_DOMAIN=example.com
    $ export BASE_DOMAIN_RESOURCE_GROUP=ocp-cluster
  2. Export the kubeadmin credentials:

    $ export KUBECONFIG=<installation_directory>/auth/kubeconfig (1)
    1 For <installation_directory>, specify the path to the directory that you stored the installation files in.

Creating the Kubernetes manifest and Ignition config files

Because you must modify some cluster definition files and manually start the cluster machines, you must generate the Kubernetes manifest and Ignition config files that the cluster needs to make its machines.

The Ignition config files that the installation program generates contain certificates that expire after 24 hours. You must complete your cluster installation and keep the cluster running for 24 hours in a non-degraded state to ensure that the first certificate rotation has finished.

Prerequisites
  • Obtain the OpenShift Container Platform installation program.

  • Create the install-config.yaml installation configuration file.

Procedure
  1. Generate the Kubernetes manifests for the cluster:

    $ ./openshift-install create manifests --dir=<installation_directory> (1)
    Example output
    INFO Consuming Install Config from target directory
    WARNING Making control-plane schedulable by setting MastersSchedulable to true for Scheduler cluster settings
    1 For <installation_directory>, specify the installation directory that contains the install-config.yaml file you created.

    Because you create your own compute machines later in the installation process, you can safely ignore this warning.

  2. Remove the Kubernetes manifest files that define the control plane machines:

    $ rm -f <installation_directory>/openshift/99_openshift-cluster-api_master-machines-*.yaml

    By removing these files, you prevent the cluster from automatically generating control plane machines.

  3. Remove the Kubernetes manifest files that define the worker machines:

    $ rm -f <installation_directory>/openshift/99_openshift-cluster-api_worker-machineset-*.yaml

    Because you create and manage the worker machines yourself, you do not need to initialize these machines.

  4. Modify the <installation_directory>/manifests/cluster-scheduler-02-config.yml Kubernetes manifest file to prevent Pods from being scheduled on the control plane machines:

    1. Open the <installation_directory>/manifests/cluster-scheduler-02-config.yml file.

    2. Locate the mastersSchedulable parameter and set its value to False.

    3. Save and exit the file.

  5. Optional: If you do not want the Ingress Operator to create DNS records on your behalf, remove the privateZone and publicZone sections from the <installation_directory>/manifests/cluster-dns-02-config.yml DNS configuration file:

    apiVersion: config.openshift.io/v1
    kind: DNS
    metadata:
      creationTimestamp: null
      name: cluster
    spec:
      baseDomain: example.openshift.com
      privateZone: (1)
        id: mycluster-100419-private-zone
      publicZone: (1)
        id: example.openshift.com
    status: {}
    1 Remove this section completely.

    If you do so, you must add ingress DNS records manually in a later step.

  6. When configuring Azure on user-provisioned infrastructure, you must export some common variables defined in the manifest files to use later in the Azure Resource Manager (ARM) templates:

    1. Export the infrastructure ID by using the following command:

      $ export INFRA_ID=<infra_id> (1)
      1 The OpenShift Container Platform cluster has been assigned an identifier (INFRA_ID) in the form of <cluster_name>-<random_string>. This will be used as the base name for most resources created using the provided ARM templates. This is the value of the .status.infrastructureName attribute from the manifests/cluster-infrastructure-02-config.yml file.
    2. Export the resource group by using the following command:

      $ export RESOURCE_GROUP=<resource_group> (1)
      1 All resources created in this Azure deployment exists as part of a resource group. The resource group name is also based on the INFRA_ID, in the form of <cluster_name>-<random_string>-rg. This is the value of the .status.platformStatus.azure.resourceGroupName attribute from the manifests/cluster-infrastructure-02-config.yml file.
  7. Obtain the Ignition config files:

    $ ./openshift-install create ignition-configs --dir=<installation_directory> (1)
    1 For <installation_directory>, specify the same installation directory.

    The following files are generated in the directory:

    .
    ├── auth
    │   ├── kubeadmin-password
    │   └── kubeconfig
    ├── bootstrap.ign
    ├── master.ign
    ├── metadata.json
    └── worker.ign

Creating the Azure resource group and identity

You must create a Microsoft Azure resource group and an identity for that resource group. These are both used during the installation of your OpenShift Container Platform cluster on Azure.

Prerequisites
  • Configure an Azure account.

  • Generate the Ignition config files for your cluster.

Procedure
  1. Create the resource group in a supported Azure region:

    $ az group create --name ${RESOURCE_GROUP} --location ${AZURE_REGION}
  2. Create an Azure identity for the resource group:

    $ az identity create -g ${RESOURCE_GROUP} -n ${INFRA_ID}-identity

    This is used to grant the required access to Operators in your cluster. For example, this allows the Ingress Operator to create a public IP and its load balancer. You must assign the Azure identity to a role.

  3. Grant the Contributor role to the Azure identity:

    1. Export the following variables required by the Azure role assignment:

      $ export PRINCIPAL_ID=`az identity show -g ${RESOURCE_GROUP} -n ${INFRA_ID}-identity --query principalId --out tsv`
      $ export RESOURCE_GROUP_ID=`az group show -g ${RESOURCE_GROUP} --query id --out tsv`
    2. Assign the Contributor role to the identity:

      $ az role assignment create --assignee "${PRINCIPAL_ID}" --role 'Contributor' --scope "${RESOURCE_GROUP_ID}"

Uploading the RHCOS cluster image and bootstrap ignition config file

The Azure client does not support deployments based on files existing locally; therefore, you must copy and store the RHCOS virtual hard disk (VHD) cluster image and bootstrap ignition config file in a storage container so they are accessible during deployment.

Prerequisites
  • Configure an Azure account.

  • Generate the Ignition config files for your cluster.

Procedure
  1. Create an Azure storage account to store the VHD cluster image:

    $ az storage account create -g ${RESOURCE_GROUP} --location ${AZURE_REGION} --name ${CLUSTER_NAME}sa --kind Storage --sku Standard_LRS

    The Azure storage account name must be between 3 and 24 characters in length and use numbers and lower-case letters only. If your CLUSTER_NAME variable does not follow these restrictions, you must manually define the Azure storage account name. For more information on Azure storage account name restrictions, see Resolve errors for storage account names in the Azure documentation.

  2. Export the storage account key as an environment variable:

    $ export ACCOUNT_KEY=`az storage account keys list -g ${RESOURCE_GROUP} --account-name ${CLUSTER_NAME}sa --query "[0].value" -o tsv`
  3. Choose the RHCOS version to use and export the URL of its VHD to an environment variable:

    $ export VHD_URL=`curl -s https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openshift/installer/release-4.5/data/data/rhcos.json | jq -r .azure.url`

    The RHCOS images might not change with every release of OpenShift Container Platform. You must specify an image with the highest version that is less than or equal to the OpenShift Container Platform version that you install. Use the image version that matches your OpenShift Container Platform version if it is available.

  4. Copy the chosen VHD to a blob:

    $ az storage container create --name vhd --account-name ${CLUSTER_NAME}sa --account-key ${ACCOUNT_KEY}
    $ az storage blob copy start --account-name ${CLUSTER_NAME}sa --account-key ${ACCOUNT_KEY} --destination-blob "rhcos.vhd" --destination-container vhd --source-uri "${VHD_URL}"

    To track the progress of the VHD copy task, run this script:

    status="unknown"
    while [ "$status" != "success" ]
    do
      status=`az storage blob show --container-name vhd --name "rhcos.vhd" --account-name ${CLUSTER_NAME}sa --account-key ${ACCOUNT_KEY} -o tsv --query properties.copy.status`
      echo $status
    done
  5. Create a blob storage container and upload the generated bootstrap.ign file:

    $ az storage container create --name files --account-name ${CLUSTER_NAME}sa --account-key ${ACCOUNT_KEY} --public-access blob
    $ az storage blob upload --account-name ${CLUSTER_NAME}sa --account-key ${ACCOUNT_KEY} -c "files" -f "<installation_directory>/bootstrap.ign" -n "bootstrap.ign"

Example for creating DNS zones

DNS records are required for clusters that use user-provisioned infrastructure. You should choose the DNS strategy that fits your scenario.

For this example, Azure’s DNS solution is used, so you will create a new public DNS zone for external (internet) visibility and a private DNS zone for internal cluster resolution.

The public DNS zone is not required to exist in the same resource group as the cluster deployment and might already exist in your organization for the desired base domain. If that is the case, you can skip creating the public DNS zone; be sure the installation config you generated earlier reflects that scenario.

Prerequisites
  • Configure an Azure account.

  • Generate the Ignition config files for your cluster.

Procedure
  1. Create the new public DNS zone in the resource group exported in the BASE_DOMAIN_RESOURCE_GROUP environment variable:

    $ az network dns zone create -g ${BASE_DOMAIN_RESOURCE_GROUP} -n ${CLUSTER_NAME}.${BASE_DOMAIN}

    You can skip this step if you are using a public DNS zone that already exists.

  2. Create the private DNS zone in the same resource group as the rest of this deployment:

    $ az network private-dns zone create -g ${RESOURCE_GROUP} -n ${CLUSTER_NAME}.${BASE_DOMAIN}

You can learn more about configuring a public DNS zone in Azure by visiting that section.

Creating a VNet in Azure

You must create a virtual network (VNet) in Microsoft Azure for your OpenShift Container Platform cluster to use. You can customize the VNet to meet your requirements. One way to create the VNet is to modify the provided Azure Resource Manager (ARM) template.

If you do not use the provided ARM template to create your Azure infrastructure, you must review the provided information and manually create the infrastructure. If your cluster does not initialize correctly, you might have to contact Red Hat support with your installation logs.

Prerequisites
  • Configure an Azure account.

  • Generate the Ignition config files for your cluster.

Procedure
  1. Copy the template from the ARM template for the VNet section of this topic and save it as 01_vnet.json in your cluster’s installation directory. This template describes the VNet that your cluster requires.

  2. Create the deployment by using the az CLI:

    $ az deployment group create -g ${RESOURCE_GROUP} \
      --template-file "<installation_directory>/01_vnet.json" \
      --parameters baseName="${INFRA_ID}"(1)
    1 The base name to be used in resource names; this is usually the cluster’s Infra ID.
  3. Link the VNet template to the private DNS zone:

    $ az network private-dns link vnet create -g ${RESOURCE_GROUP} -z ${CLUSTER_NAME}.${BASE_DOMAIN} -n ${INFRA_ID}-network-link -v "${INFRA_ID}-vnet" -e false

ARM template for the VNet

You can use the following Azure Resource Manager (ARM) template to deploy the VNet that you need for your OpenShift Container Platform cluster:

01_vnet.json ARM template
{
  "$schema" : "https://schema.management.azure.com/schemas/2015-01-01/deploymentTemplate.json#",
  "contentVersion" : "1.0.0.0",
  "parameters" : {
    "baseName" : {
      "type" : "string",
      "minLength" : 1,
      "metadata" : {
        "description" : "Base name to be used in resource names (usually the cluster's Infra ID)"
      }
    }
  },
  "variables" : {
    "location" : "[resourceGroup().location]",
    "virtualNetworkName" : "[concat(parameters('baseName'), '-vnet')]",
    "addressPrefix" : "10.0.0.0/16",
    "masterSubnetName" : "[concat(parameters('baseName'), '-master-subnet')]",
    "masterSubnetPrefix" : "10.0.0.0/24",
    "nodeSubnetName" : "[concat(parameters('baseName'), '-worker-subnet')]",
    "nodeSubnetPrefix" : "10.0.1.0/24",
    "clusterNsgName" : "[concat(parameters('baseName'), '-nsg')]"
  },
  "resources" : [
    {
      "apiVersion" : "2018-12-01",
      "type" : "Microsoft.Network/virtualNetworks",
      "name" : "[variables('virtualNetworkName')]",
      "location" : "[variables('location')]",
      "dependsOn" : [
        "[concat('Microsoft.Network/networkSecurityGroups/', variables('clusterNsgName'))]"
      ],
      "properties" : {
        "addressSpace" : {
          "addressPrefixes" : [
            "[variables('addressPrefix')]"
          ]
        },
        "subnets" : [
          {
            "name" : "[variables('masterSubnetName')]",
            "properties" : {
              "addressPrefix" : "[variables('masterSubnetPrefix')]",
              "serviceEndpoints": [],
              "networkSecurityGroup" : {
                "id" : "[resourceId('Microsoft.Network/networkSecurityGroups', variables('clusterNsgName'))]"
              }
            }
          },
          {
            "name" : "[variables('nodeSubnetName')]",
            "properties" : {
              "addressPrefix" : "[variables('nodeSubnetPrefix')]",
              "serviceEndpoints": [],
              "networkSecurityGroup" : {
                "id" : "[resourceId('Microsoft.Network/networkSecurityGroups', variables('clusterNsgName'))]"
              }
            }
          }
        ]
      }
    },
    {
      "type" : "Microsoft.Network/networkSecurityGroups",
      "name" : "[variables('clusterNsgName')]",
      "apiVersion" : "2018-10-01",
      "location" : "[variables('location')]",
      "properties" : {
        "securityRules" : [
          {
            "name" : "apiserver_in",
            "properties" : {
              "protocol" : "Tcp",
              "sourcePortRange" : "*",
              "destinationPortRange" : "6443",
              "sourceAddressPrefix" : "*",
              "destinationAddressPrefix" : "*",
              "access" : "Allow",
              "priority" : 101,
              "direction" : "Inbound"
            }
          }
        ]
      }
    }
  ]
}

Deploying the RHCOS cluster image for the Azure infrastructure

You must use a valid Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) image for Microsoft Azure for your OpenShift Container Platform nodes.

Prerequisites
  • Configure an Azure account.

  • Generate the Ignition config files for your cluster.

  • Store the RHCOS virtual hard disk (VHD) cluster image in an Azure storage container.

  • Store the bootstrap ignition config file in an Azure storage container.

Procedure
  1. Copy the template from the ARM template for image storage section of this topic and save it as 02_storage.json in your cluster’s installation directory. This template describes the image storage that your cluster requires.

  2. Export the RHCOS VHD blob URL as a variable:

    $ export VHD_BLOB_URL=`az storage blob url --account-name ${CLUSTER_NAME}sa --account-key ${ACCOUNT_KEY} -c vhd -n "rhcos.vhd" -o tsv`
  3. Deploy the cluster image:

    $ az deployment group create -g ${RESOURCE_GROUP} \
      --template-file "<installation_directory>/02_storage.json" \
      --parameters vhdBlobURL="${VHD_BLOB_URL}" \ (1)
      --parameters baseName="${INFRA_ID}"(2)
    
    1 The blob URL of the RHCOS VHD to be used to create master and worker machines.
    2 The base name to be used in resource names; this is usually the cluster’s Infra ID.

ARM template for image storage

You can use the following Azure Resource Manager (ARM) template to deploy the stored Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) image that you need for your OpenShift Container Platform cluster:

02_storage.json ARM template
{
  "$schema" : "https://schema.management.azure.com/schemas/2015-01-01/deploymentTemplate.json#",
  "contentVersion" : "1.0.0.0",
  "parameters" : {
    "baseName" : {
      "type" : "string",
      "minLength" : 1,
      "metadata" : {
        "description" : "Base name to be used in resource names (usually the cluster's Infra ID)"
      }
    },
    "vhdBlobURL" : {
      "type" : "string",
      "metadata" : {
        "description" : "URL pointing to the blob where the VHD to be used to create master and worker machines is located"
      }
    }
  },
  "variables" : {
    "location" : "[resourceGroup().location]",
    "imageName" : "[concat(parameters('baseName'), '-image')]"
  },
  "resources" : [
    {
      "apiVersion" : "2018-06-01",
      "type": "Microsoft.Compute/images",
      "name": "[variables('imageName')]",
      "location" : "[variables('location')]",
      "properties": {
        "storageProfile": {
          "osDisk": {
            "osType": "Linux",
            "osState": "Generalized",
            "blobUri": "[parameters('vhdBlobURL')]",
            "storageAccountType": "Standard_LRS"
          }
        }
      }
    }
  ]
}

Creating networking and load balancing components in Azure

You must configure networking and load balancing in Microsoft Azure for your OpenShift Container Platform cluster to use. One way to create these components is to modify the provided Azure Resource Manager (ARM) template.

If you do not use the provided ARM template to create your Azure infrastructure, you must review the provided information and manually create the infrastructure. If your cluster does not initialize correctly, you might have to contact Red Hat support with your installation logs.

Prerequisites
  • Configure an Azure account.

  • Generate the Ignition config files for your cluster.

  • Create and configure a VNet and associated subnets in Azure.

Procedure
  1. Copy the template from the ARM template for the network and load balancers section of this topic and save it as 03_infra.json in your cluster’s installation directory. This template describes the networking and load balancing objects that your cluster requires.

  2. Create the deployment by using the az CLI:

    $ az deployment group create -g ${RESOURCE_GROUP} \
      --template-file "<installation_directory>/03_infra.json" \
      --parameters privateDNSZoneName="${CLUSTER_NAME}.${BASE_DOMAIN}" \ (1)
      --parameters baseName="${INFRA_ID}"(2)
    
    1 The name of the private DNS zone.
    2 The base name to be used in resource names; this is usually the cluster’s Infra ID.
  3. Create an api DNS record in the public zone for the API public load balancer. The ${BASE_DOMAIN_RESOURCE_GROUP} variable must point to the resource group where the public DNS zone exists.

    1. Export the following variable:

      $ export PUBLIC_IP=`az network public-ip list -g ${RESOURCE_GROUP} --query "[?name=='${INFRA_ID}-master-pip'] | [0].ipAddress" -o tsv`
    2. Create the DNS record in a new public zone:

      $ az network dns record-set a add-record -g ${BASE_DOMAIN_RESOURCE_GROUP} -z ${CLUSTER_NAME}.${BASE_DOMAIN} -n api -a ${PUBLIC_IP} --ttl 60
    3. If you are adding the cluster to an existing public zone, you can create the DNS record in it instead:

      $ az network dns record-set a add-record -g ${BASE_DOMAIN_RESOURCE_GROUP} -z ${BASE_DOMAIN} -n api.${CLUSTER_NAME} -a ${PUBLIC_IP} --ttl 60

ARM template for the network and load balancers

You can use the following Azure Resource Manager (ARM) template to deploy the networking objects and load balancers that you need for your OpenShift Container Platform cluster:

03_infra.json ARM template
{
  "$schema" : "https://schema.management.azure.com/schemas/2015-01-01/deploymentTemplate.json#",
  "contentVersion" : "1.0.0.0",
  "parameters" : {
    "baseName" : {
      "type" : "string",
      "minLength" : 1,
      "metadata" : {
        "description" : "Base name to be used in resource names (usually the cluster's Infra ID)"
      }
    },
    "privateDNSZoneName" : {
      "type" : "string",
      "metadata" : {
        "description" : "Name of the private DNS zone"
      }
    }
  },
  "variables" : {
    "location" : "[resourceGroup().location]",
    "virtualNetworkName" : "[concat(parameters('baseName'), '-vnet')]",
    "virtualNetworkID" : "[resourceId('Microsoft.Network/virtualNetworks', variables('virtualNetworkName'))]",
    "masterSubnetName" : "[concat(parameters('baseName'), '-master-subnet')]",
    "masterSubnetRef" : "[concat(variables('virtualNetworkID'), '/subnets/', variables('masterSubnetName'))]",
    "masterPublicIpAddressName" : "[concat(parameters('baseName'), '-master-pip')]",
    "masterPublicIpAddressID" : "[resourceId('Microsoft.Network/publicIPAddresses', variables('masterPublicIpAddressName'))]",
    "masterLoadBalancerName" : "[concat(parameters('baseName'), '-public-lb')]",
    "masterLoadBalancerID" : "[resourceId('Microsoft.Network/loadBalancers', variables('masterLoadBalancerName'))]",
    "internalLoadBalancerName" : "[concat(parameters('baseName'), '-internal-lb')]",
    "internalLoadBalancerID" : "[resourceId('Microsoft.Network/loadBalancers', variables('internalLoadBalancerName'))]",
    "skuName": "Standard"
  },
  "resources" : [
    {
      "apiVersion" : "2018-12-01",
      "type" : "Microsoft.Network/publicIPAddresses",
      "name" : "[variables('masterPublicIpAddressName')]",
      "location" : "[variables('location')]",
      "sku": {
        "name": "[variables('skuName')]"
      },
      "properties" : {
        "publicIPAllocationMethod" : "Static",
        "dnsSettings" : {
          "domainNameLabel" : "[variables('masterPublicIpAddressName')]"
        }
      }
    },
    {
      "apiVersion" : "2018-12-01",
      "type" : "Microsoft.Network/loadBalancers",
      "name" : "[variables('masterLoadBalancerName')]",
      "location" : "[variables('location')]",
      "sku": {
        "name": "[variables('skuName')]"
      },
      "dependsOn" : [
        "[concat('Microsoft.Network/publicIPAddresses/', variables('masterPublicIpAddressName'))]"
      ],
      "properties" : {
        "frontendIPConfigurations" : [
          {
            "name" : "public-lb-ip",
            "properties" : {
              "publicIPAddress" : {
                "id" : "[variables('masterPublicIpAddressID')]"
              }
            }
          }
        ],
        "backendAddressPools" : [
          {
            "name" : "public-lb-backend"
          }
        ],
        "loadBalancingRules" : [
          {
            "name" : "api-internal",
            "properties" : {
              "frontendIPConfiguration" : {
                "id" :"[concat(variables('masterLoadBalancerID'), '/frontendIPConfigurations/public-lb-ip')]"
              },
              "backendAddressPool" : {
                "id" : "[concat(variables('masterLoadBalancerID'), '/backendAddressPools/public-lb-backend')]"
              },
              "protocol" : "Tcp",
              "loadDistribution" : "Default",
              "idleTimeoutInMinutes" : 30,
              "frontendPort" : 6443,
              "backendPort" : 6443,
              "probe" : {
                "id" : "[concat(variables('masterLoadBalancerID'), '/probes/api-internal-probe')]"
              }
            }
          }
        ],
        "probes" : [
          {
            "name" : "api-internal-probe",
            "properties" : {
              "protocol" : "Https",
              "port" : 6443,
              "requestPath": "/readyz",
              "intervalInSeconds" : 10,
              "numberOfProbes" : 3
            }
          }
        ]
      }
    },
    {
      "apiVersion" : "2018-12-01",
      "type" : "Microsoft.Network/loadBalancers",
      "name" : "[variables('internalLoadBalancerName')]",
      "location" : "[variables('location')]",
      "sku": {
        "name": "[variables('skuName')]"
      },
      "properties" : {
        "frontendIPConfigurations" : [
          {
            "name" : "internal-lb-ip",
            "properties" : {
              "privateIPAllocationMethod" : "Dynamic",
              "subnet" : {
                "id" : "[variables('masterSubnetRef')]"
              },
              "privateIPAddressVersion" : "IPv4"
            }
          }
        ],
        "backendAddressPools" : [
          {
            "name" : "internal-lb-backend"
          }
        ],
        "loadBalancingRules" : [
          {
            "name" : "api-internal",
            "properties" : {
              "frontendIPConfiguration" : {
                "id" : "[concat(variables('internalLoadBalancerID'), '/frontendIPConfigurations/internal-lb-ip')]"
              },
              "frontendPort" : 6443,
              "backendPort" : 6443,
              "enableFloatingIP" : false,
              "idleTimeoutInMinutes" : 30,
              "protocol" : "Tcp",
              "enableTcpReset" : false,
              "loadDistribution" : "Default",
              "backendAddressPool" : {
                "id" : "[concat(variables('internalLoadBalancerID'), '/backendAddressPools/internal-lb-backend')]"
              },
              "probe" : {
                "id" : "[concat(variables('internalLoadBalancerID'), '/probes/api-internal-probe')]"
              }
            }
          },
          {
            "name" : "sint",
            "properties" : {
              "frontendIPConfiguration" : {
                "id" : "[concat(variables('internalLoadBalancerID'), '/frontendIPConfigurations/internal-lb-ip')]"
              },
              "frontendPort" : 22623,
              "backendPort" : 22623,
              "enableFloatingIP" : false,
              "idleTimeoutInMinutes" : 30,
              "protocol" : "Tcp",
              "enableTcpReset" : false,
              "loadDistribution" : "Default",
              "backendAddressPool" : {
                "id" : "[concat(variables('internalLoadBalancerID'), '/backendAddressPools/internal-lb-backend')]"
              },
              "probe" : {
                "id" : "[concat(variables('internalLoadBalancerID'), '/probes/sint-probe')]"
              }
            }
          }
        ],
        "probes" : [
          {
            "name" : "api-internal-probe",
            "properties" : {
              "protocol" : "Https",
              "port" : 6443,
              "requestPath": "/readyz",
              "intervalInSeconds" : 10,
              "numberOfProbes" : 3
            }
          },
          {
            "name" : "sint-probe",
            "properties" : {
              "protocol" : "Https",
              "port" : 22623,
              "requestPath": "/healthz",
              "intervalInSeconds" : 10,
              "numberOfProbes" : 3
            }
          }
        ]
      }
    },
    {
      "apiVersion": "2018-09-01",
      "type": "Microsoft.Network/privateDnsZones/A",
      "name": "[concat(parameters('privateDNSZoneName'), '/api')]",
      "location" : "[variables('location')]",
      "dependsOn" : [
        "[concat('Microsoft.Network/loadBalancers/', variables('internalLoadBalancerName'))]"
      ],
      "properties": {
        "ttl": 60,
        "aRecords": [
          {
            "ipv4Address": "[reference(variables('internalLoadBalancerName')).frontendIPConfigurations[0].properties.privateIPAddress]"
          }
        ]
      }
    },
    {
      "apiVersion": "2018-09-01",
      "type": "Microsoft.Network/privateDnsZones/A",
      "name": "[concat(parameters('privateDNSZoneName'), '/api-int')]",
      "location" : "[variables('location')]",
      "dependsOn" : [
        "[concat('Microsoft.Network/loadBalancers/', variables('internalLoadBalancerName'))]"
      ],
      "properties": {
        "ttl": 60,
        "aRecords": [
          {
            "ipv4Address": "[reference(variables('internalLoadBalancerName')).frontendIPConfigurations[0].properties.privateIPAddress]"
          }
        ]
      }
    }
  ]
}

Creating the bootstrap machine in Azure

You must create the bootstrap machine in Microsoft Azure to use during OpenShift Container Platform cluster initialization. One way to create this machine is to modify the provided Azure Resource Manager (ARM) template.

If you do not use the provided ARM template to create your bootstrap machine, you must review the provided information and manually create the infrastructure. If your cluster does not initialize correctly, you might have to contact Red Hat support with your installation logs.

Prerequisites
  • Configure an Azure account.

  • Generate the Ignition config files for your cluster.

  • Create and configure a VNet and associated subnets in Azure.

  • Create and configure networking and load balancers in Azure.

  • Create control plane and compute roles.

Procedure
  1. Copy the template from the ARM template for the bootstrap machine section of this topic and save it as 04_bootstrap.json in your cluster’s installation directory. This template describes the bootstrap machine that your cluster requires.

  2. Export the following variables required by the bootstrap machine deployment:

    $ export BOOTSTRAP_URL=`az storage blob url --account-name ${CLUSTER_NAME}sa --account-key ${ACCOUNT_KEY} -c "files" -n "bootstrap.ign" -o tsv`
    $ export BOOTSTRAP_IGNITION=`jq -rcnM --arg v "2.2.0" --arg url ${BOOTSTRAP_URL} '{ignition:{version:$v,config:{replace:{source:$url}}}}' | base64 -w0`
  3. Create the deployment by using the az CLI:

    $ az deployment group create -g ${RESOURCE_GROUP} \
      --template-file "<installation_directory>/04_bootstrap.json" \
      --parameters bootstrapIgnition="${BOOTSTRAP_IGNITION}" \ (1)
      --parameters sshKeyData="${SSH_KEY}" \ (2)
      --parameters baseName="${INFRA_ID}" (3)
    1 The bootstrap ignition content for the bootstrap cluster.
    2 The SSH RSA public key file as a string.
    3 The base name to be used in resource names; this is usually the cluster’s Infra ID.

ARM template for the bootstrap machine

You can use the following Azure Resource Manager (ARM) template to deploy the bootstrap machine that you need for your OpenShift Container Platform cluster:

04_bootstrap.json ARM template
{
  "$schema" : "https://schema.management.azure.com/schemas/2015-01-01/deploymentTemplate.json#",
  "contentVersion" : "1.0.0.0",
  "parameters" : {
    "baseName" : {
      "type" : "string",
      "minLength" : 1,
      "metadata" : {
        "description" : "Base name to be used in resource names (usually the cluster's Infra ID)"
      }
    },
    "bootstrapIgnition" : {
      "type" : "string",
      "minLength" : 1,
      "metadata" : {
        "description" : "Bootstrap ignition content for the bootstrap cluster"
      }
    },
    "sshKeyData" : {
      "type" : "securestring",
      "metadata" : {
        "description" : "SSH RSA public key file as a string."
      }
    },
    "bootstrapVMSize" : {
      "type" : "string",
      "defaultValue" : "Standard_D4s_v3",
      "allowedValues" : [
        "Standard_A2",
        "Standard_A3",
        "Standard_A4",
        "Standard_A5",
        "Standard_A6",
        "Standard_A7",
        "Standard_A8",
        "Standard_A9",
        "Standard_A10",
        "Standard_A11",
        "Standard_D2",
        "Standard_D3",
        "Standard_D4",
        "Standard_D11",
        "Standard_D12",
        "Standard_D13",
        "Standard_D14",
        "Standard_D2_v2",
        "Standard_D3_v2",
        "Standard_D4_v2",
        "Standard_D5_v2",
        "Standard_D8_v3",
        "Standard_D11_v2",
        "Standard_D12_v2",
        "Standard_D13_v2",
        "Standard_D14_v2",
        "Standard_E2_v3",
        "Standard_E4_v3",
        "Standard_E8_v3",
        "Standard_E16_v3",
        "Standard_E32_v3",
        "Standard_E64_v3",
        "Standard_E2s_v3",
        "Standard_E4s_v3",
        "Standard_E8s_v3",
        "Standard_E16s_v3",
        "Standard_E32s_v3",
        "Standard_E64s_v3",
        "Standard_G1",
        "Standard_G2",
        "Standard_G3",
        "Standard_G4",
        "Standard_G5",
        "Standard_DS2",
        "Standard_DS3",
        "Standard_DS4",
        "Standard_DS11",
        "Standard_DS12",
        "Standard_DS13",
        "Standard_DS14",
        "Standard_DS2_v2",
        "Standard_DS3_v2",
        "Standard_DS4_v2",
        "Standard_DS5_v2",
        "Standard_DS11_v2",
        "Standard_DS12_v2",
        "Standard_DS13_v2",
        "Standard_DS14_v2",
        "Standard_GS1",
        "Standard_GS2",
        "Standard_GS3",
        "Standard_GS4",
        "Standard_GS5",
        "Standard_D2s_v3",
        "Standard_D4s_v3",
        "Standard_D8s_v3"
      ],
      "metadata" : {
        "description" : "The size of the Bootstrap Virtual Machine"
      }
    }
  },
  "variables" : {
    "location" : "[resourceGroup().location]",
    "virtualNetworkName" : "[concat(parameters('baseName'), '-vnet')]",
    "virtualNetworkID" : "[resourceId('Microsoft.Network/virtualNetworks', variables('virtualNetworkName'))]",
    "masterSubnetName" : "[concat(parameters('baseName'), '-master-subnet')]",
    "masterSubnetRef" : "[concat(variables('virtualNetworkID'), '/subnets/', variables('masterSubnetName'))]",
    "masterLoadBalancerName" : "[concat(parameters('baseName'), '-public-lb')]",
    "internalLoadBalancerName" : "[concat(parameters('baseName'), '-internal-lb')]",
    "sshKeyPath" : "/home/core/.ssh/authorized_keys",
    "identityName" : "[concat(parameters('baseName'), '-identity')]",
    "vmName" : "[concat(parameters('baseName'), '-bootstrap')]",
    "nicName" : "[concat(variables('vmName'), '-nic')]",
    "imageName" : "[concat(parameters('baseName'), '-image')]",
    "clusterNsgName" : "[concat(parameters('baseName'), '-nsg')]",
    "sshPublicIpAddressName" : "[concat(variables('vmName'), '-ssh-pip')]"
  },
  "resources" : [
    {
      "apiVersion" : "2018-12-01",
      "type" : "Microsoft.Network/publicIPAddresses",
      "name" : "[variables('sshPublicIpAddressName')]",
      "location" : "[variables('location')]",
      "sku": {
        "name": "Standard"
      },
      "properties" : {
        "publicIPAllocationMethod" : "Static",
        "dnsSettings" : {
          "domainNameLabel" : "[variables('sshPublicIpAddressName')]"
        }
      }
    },
    {
      "apiVersion" : "2018-06-01",
      "type" : "Microsoft.Network/networkInterfaces",
      "name" : "[variables('nicName')]",
      "location" : "[variables('location')]",
      "dependsOn" : [
        "[resourceId('Microsoft.Network/publicIPAddresses', variables('sshPublicIpAddressName'))]"
      ],
      "properties" : {
        "ipConfigurations" : [
          {
            "name" : "pipConfig",
            "properties" : {
              "privateIPAllocationMethod" : "Dynamic",
              "publicIPAddress": {
                "id": "[resourceId('Microsoft.Network/publicIPAddresses', variables('sshPublicIpAddressName'))]"
              },
              "subnet" : {
                "id" : "[variables('masterSubnetRef')]"
              },
              "loadBalancerBackendAddressPools" : [
                {
                  "id" : "[concat('/subscriptions/', subscription().subscriptionId, '/resourceGroups/', resourceGroup().name, '/providers/Microsoft.Network/loadBalancers/', variables('masterLoadBalancerName'), '/backendAddressPools/public-lb-backend')]"
                },
                {
                  "id" : "[concat('/subscriptions/', subscription().subscriptionId, '/resourceGroups/', resourceGroup().name, '/providers/Microsoft.Network/loadBalancers/', variables('internalLoadBalancerName'), '/backendAddressPools/internal-lb-backend')]"
                }
              ]
            }
          }
        ]
      }
    },
    {
      "apiVersion" : "2018-06-01",
      "type" : "Microsoft.Compute/virtualMachines",
      "name" : "[variables('vmName')]",
      "location" : "[variables('location')]",
      "identity" : {
        "type" : "userAssigned",
        "userAssignedIdentities" : {
          "[resourceID('Microsoft.ManagedIdentity/userAssignedIdentities/', variables('identityName'))]" : {}
        }
      },
      "dependsOn" : [
        "[concat('Microsoft.Network/networkInterfaces/', variables('nicName'))]"
      ],
      "properties" : {
        "hardwareProfile" : {
          "vmSize" : "[parameters('bootstrapVMSize')]"
        },
        "osProfile" : {
          "computerName" : "[variables('vmName')]",
          "adminUsername" : "core",
          "customData" : "[parameters('bootstrapIgnition')]",
          "linuxConfiguration" : {
            "disablePasswordAuthentication" : true,
            "ssh" : {
              "publicKeys" : [
                {
                  "path" : "[variables('sshKeyPath')]",
                  "keyData" : "[parameters('sshKeyData')]"
                }
              ]
            }
          }
        },
        "storageProfile" : {
          "imageReference": {
            "id": "[resourceId('Microsoft.Compute/images', variables('imageName'))]"
          },
          "osDisk" : {
            "name": "[concat(variables('vmName'),'_OSDisk')]",
            "osType" : "Linux",
            "createOption" : "FromImage",
            "managedDisk": {
              "storageAccountType": "Premium_LRS"
            },
            "diskSizeGB" : 100
          }
        },
        "networkProfile" : {
          "networkInterfaces" : [
            {
              "id" : "[resourceId('Microsoft.Network/networkInterfaces', variables('nicName'))]"
            }
          ]
        }
      }
    },
    {
      "apiVersion" : "2018-06-01",
      "type": "Microsoft.Network/networkSecurityGroups/securityRules",
      "name" : "[concat(variables('clusterNsgName'), '/bootstrap_ssh_in')]",
      "location" : "[variables('location')]",
      "dependsOn" : [
        "[resourceId('Microsoft.Compute/virtualMachines', variables('vmName'))]"
      ],
      "properties": {
        "protocol" : "Tcp",
        "sourcePortRange" : "*",
        "destinationPortRange" : "22",
        "sourceAddressPrefix" : "*",
        "destinationAddressPrefix" : "*",
        "access" : "Allow",
        "priority" : 100,
        "direction" : "Inbound"
      }
    }
  ]
}

Creating the control plane machines in Azure

You must create the control plane machines in Microsoft Azure for your cluster to use. One way to create these machines is to modify the provided Azure Resource Manager (ARM) template.

If you do not use the provided ARM template to create your control plane machines, you must review the provided information and manually create the infrastructure. If your cluster does not initialize correctly, you might have to contact Red Hat support with your installation logs.

Prerequisites
  • Configure an Azure account.

  • Generate the Ignition config files for your cluster.

  • Create and configure a VNet and assoicated subnets in Azure.

  • Create and configure networking and load balancers in Azure.

  • Create control plane and compute roles.

  • Create the bootstrap machine.

Procedure
  1. Copy the template from the ARM template for control plane machines section of this topic and save it as 05_masters.json in your cluster’s installation directory. This template describes the control plane machines that your cluster requires.

  2. Export the following variable needed by the control plane machine deployment:

    $ export MASTER_IGNITION=`cat <installation_directory>/master.ign | base64`
  3. Create the deployment by using the az CLI:

    $ az deployment group create -g ${RESOURCE_GROUP} \
      --template-file "<installation_directory>/05_masters.json" \
      --parameters masterIgnition="${MASTER_IGNITION}" \ (1)
      --parameters sshKeyData="${SSH_KEY}" \ (2)
      --parameters privateDNSZoneName="${CLUSTER_NAME}.${BASE_DOMAIN}"(3)
      --parameters baseName="${INFRA_ID}"(4)
    
    1 The ignition content for the master nodes.
    2 The SSH RSA public key file as a string.
    3 The name of the private DNS zone to which the master nodes are attached.
    4 The base name to be used in resource names; this is usually the cluster’s Infra ID.

ARM template for control plane machines

You can use the following Azure Resource Manager (ARM) template to deploy the control plane machines that you need for your OpenShift Container Platform cluster:

05_masters.json ARM template
{
  "$schema" : "https://schema.management.azure.com/schemas/2015-01-01/deploymentTemplate.json#",
  "contentVersion" : "1.0.0.0",
  "parameters" : {
    "baseName" : {
      "type" : "string",
      "minLength" : 1,
      "metadata" : {
        "description" : "Base name to be used in resource names (usually the cluster's Infra ID)"
      }
    },
    "masterIgnition" : {
      "type" : "string",
      "metadata" : {
        "description" : "Ignition content for the master nodes"
      }
    },
    "numberOfMasters" : {
      "type" : "int",
      "defaultValue" : 3,
      "minValue" : 2,
      "maxValue" : 30,
      "metadata" : {
        "description" : "Number of OpenShift masters to deploy"
      }
    },
    "sshKeyData" : {
      "type" : "securestring",
      "metadata" : {
        "description" : "SSH RSA public key file as a string"
      }
    },
    "privateDNSZoneName" : {
      "type" : "string",
      "metadata" : {
        "description" : "Name of the private DNS zone the master nodes are going to be attached to"
      }
    },
    "masterVMSize" : {
      "type" : "string",
      "defaultValue" : "Standard_D8s_v3",
      "allowedValues" : [
        "Standard_A2",
        "Standard_A3",
        "Standard_A4",
        "Standard_A5",
        "Standard_A6",
        "Standard_A7",
        "Standard_A8",
        "Standard_A9",
        "Standard_A10",
        "Standard_A11",
        "Standard_D2",
        "Standard_D3",
        "Standard_D4",
        "Standard_D11",
        "Standard_D12",
        "Standard_D13",
        "Standard_D14",
        "Standard_D2_v2",
        "Standard_D3_v2",
        "Standard_D4_v2",
        "Standard_D5_v2",
        "Standard_D8_v3",
        "Standard_D11_v2",
        "Standard_D12_v2",
        "Standard_D13_v2",
        "Standard_D14_v2",
        "Standard_E2_v3",
        "Standard_E4_v3",
        "Standard_E8_v3",
        "Standard_E16_v3",
        "Standard_E32_v3",
        "Standard_E64_v3",
        "Standard_E2s_v3",
        "Standard_E4s_v3",
        "Standard_E8s_v3",
        "Standard_E16s_v3",
        "Standard_E32s_v3",
        "Standard_E64s_v3",
        "Standard_G1",
        "Standard_G2",
        "Standard_G3",
        "Standard_G4",
        "Standard_G5",
        "Standard_DS2",
        "Standard_DS3",
        "Standard_DS4",
        "Standard_DS11",
        "Standard_DS12",
        "Standard_DS13",
        "Standard_DS14",
        "Standard_DS2_v2",
        "Standard_DS3_v2",
        "Standard_DS4_v2",
        "Standard_DS5_v2",
        "Standard_DS11_v2",
        "Standard_DS12_v2",
        "Standard_DS13_v2",
        "Standard_DS14_v2",
        "Standard_GS1",
        "Standard_GS2",
        "Standard_GS3",
        "Standard_GS4",
        "Standard_GS5",
        "Standard_D2s_v3",
        "Standard_D4s_v3",
        "Standard_D8s_v3"
      ],
      "metadata" : {
        "description" : "The size of the Master Virtual Machines"
      }
    },
    "diskSizeGB" : {
      "type" : "int",
      "defaultValue" : 1024,
      "metadata" : {
        "description" : "Size of the Master VM OS disk, in GB"
      }
    }
  },
  "variables" : {
    "location" : "[resourceGroup().location]",
    "virtualNetworkName" : "[concat(parameters('baseName'), '-vnet')]",
    "virtualNetworkID" : "[resourceId('Microsoft.Network/virtualNetworks', variables('virtualNetworkName'))]",
    "masterSubnetName" : "[concat(parameters('baseName'), '-master-subnet')]",
    "masterSubnetRef" : "[concat(variables('virtualNetworkID'), '/subnets/', variables('masterSubnetName'))]",
    "masterLoadBalancerName" : "[concat(parameters('baseName'), '-public-lb')]",
    "internalLoadBalancerName" : "[concat(parameters('baseName'), '-internal-lb')]",
    "sshKeyPath" : "/home/core/.ssh/authorized_keys",
    "identityName" : "[concat(parameters('baseName'), '-identity')]",
    "imageName" : "[concat(parameters('baseName'), '-image')]",
    "copy" : [
      {
        "name" : "vmNames",
        "count" :  "[parameters('numberOfMasters')]",
        "input" : "[concat(parameters('baseName'), '-master-', copyIndex('vmNames'))]"
      }
    ]
  },
  "resources" : [
    {
      "apiVersion" : "2018-06-01",
      "type" : "Microsoft.Network/networkInterfaces",
      "copy" : {
        "name" : "nicCopy",
        "count" : "[length(variables('vmNames'))]"
      },
      "name" : "[concat(variables('vmNames')[copyIndex()], '-nic')]",
      "location" : "[variables('location')]",
      "properties" : {
        "ipConfigurations" : [
          {
            "name" : "pipConfig",
            "properties" : {
              "privateIPAllocationMethod" : "Dynamic",
              "subnet" : {
                "id" : "[variables('masterSubnetRef')]"
              },
              "loadBalancerBackendAddressPools" : [
                {
                  "id" : "[concat('/subscriptions/', subscription().subscriptionId, '/resourceGroups/', resourceGroup().name, '/providers/Microsoft.Network/loadBalancers/', variables('masterLoadBalancerName'), '/backendAddressPools/public-lb-backend')]"
                },
                {
                  "id" : "[concat('/subscriptions/', subscription().subscriptionId, '/resourceGroups/', resourceGroup().name, '/providers/Microsoft.Network/loadBalancers/', variables('internalLoadBalancerName'), '/backendAddressPools/internal-lb-backend')]"
                }
              ]
            }
          }
        ]
      }
    },
    {
      "apiVersion": "2018-09-01",
      "type": "Microsoft.Network/privateDnsZones/SRV",
      "name": "[concat(parameters('privateDNSZoneName'), '/_etcd-server-ssl._tcp')]",
      "location" : "[variables('location')]",
      "properties": {
        "ttl": 60,
        "copy": [{
          "name": "srvRecords",
          "count": "[length(variables('vmNames'))]",
          "input": {
            "priority": 0,
            "weight" : 10,
            "port" : 2380,
            "target" : "[concat('etcd-', copyIndex('srvRecords'), '.', parameters('privateDNSZoneName'))]"
          }
        }]
      }
    },
    {
      "apiVersion": "2018-09-01",
      "type": "Microsoft.Network/privateDnsZones/A",
      "copy" : {
        "name" : "dnsCopy",
        "count" : "[length(variables('vmNames'))]"
      },
      "name": "[concat(parameters('privateDNSZoneName'), '/etcd-', copyIndex())]",
      "location" : "[variables('location')]",
      "dependsOn" : [
        "[concat('Microsoft.Network/networkInterfaces/', concat(variables('vmNames')[copyIndex()], '-nic'))]"
      ],
      "properties": {
        "ttl": 60,
        "aRecords": [
          {
            "ipv4Address": "[reference(concat(variables('vmNames')[copyIndex()], '-nic')).ipConfigurations[0].properties.privateIPAddress]"
          }
        ]
      }
    },
    {
      "apiVersion" : "2018-06-01",
      "type" : "Microsoft.Compute/virtualMachines",
      "copy" : {
        "name" : "vmCopy",
        "count" : "[length(variables('vmNames'))]"
      },
      "name" : "[variables('vmNames')[copyIndex()]]",
      "location" : "[variables('location')]",
      "identity" : {
        "type" : "userAssigned",
        "userAssignedIdentities" : {
          "[resourceID('Microsoft.ManagedIdentity/userAssignedIdentities/', variables('identityName'))]" : {}
        }
      },
      "dependsOn" : [
        "[concat('Microsoft.Network/networkInterfaces/', concat(variables('vmNames')[copyIndex()], '-nic'))]",
        "[concat('Microsoft.Network/privateDnsZones/', parameters('privateDNSZoneName'), '/A/etcd-', copyIndex())]",
        "[concat('Microsoft.Network/privateDnsZones/', parameters('privateDNSZoneName'), '/SRV/_etcd-server-ssl._tcp')]"
      ],
      "properties" : {
        "hardwareProfile" : {
          "vmSize" : "[parameters('masterVMSize')]"
        },
        "osProfile" : {
          "computerName" : "[variables('vmNames')[copyIndex()]]",
          "adminUsername" : "core",
          "customData" : "[parameters('masterIgnition')]",
          "linuxConfiguration" : {
            "disablePasswordAuthentication" : true,
            "ssh" : {
              "publicKeys" : [
                {
                  "path" : "[variables('sshKeyPath')]",
                  "keyData" : "[parameters('sshKeyData')]"
                }
              ]
            }
          }
        },
        "storageProfile" : {
          "imageReference": {
            "id": "[resourceId('Microsoft.Compute/images', variables('imageName'))]"
          },
          "osDisk" : {
            "name": "[concat(variables('vmNames')[copyIndex()], '_OSDisk')]",
            "osType" : "Linux",
            "createOption" : "FromImage",
            "caching": "ReadOnly",
            "writeAcceleratorEnabled": false,
            "managedDisk": {
              "storageAccountType": "Premium_LRS"
            },
            "diskSizeGB" : "[parameters('diskSizeGB')]"
          }
        },
        "networkProfile" : {
          "networkInterfaces" : [
            {
              "id" : "[resourceId('Microsoft.Network/networkInterfaces', concat(variables('vmNames')[copyIndex()], '-nic'))]",
              "properties": {
                "primary": false
              }
            }
          ]
        }
      }
    }
  ]
}

Wait for bootstrap completion and remove bootstrap resources in Azure

After you create all of the required infrastructure in Microsoft Azure, wait for the bootstrap process to complete on the machines that you provisioned by using the Ignition config files that you generated with the installation program.

Prerequisites
  • Configure an Azure account.

  • Generate the Ignition config files for your cluster.

  • Create and configure a VNet and associated subnets in Azure.

  • Create and configure networking and load balancers in Azure.

  • Create control plane and compute roles.

  • Create the bootstrap machine.

  • Create the control plane machines.

Procedure
  1. Change to the directory that contains the installation program and run the following command:

    $ ./openshift-install wait-for bootstrap-complete --dir=<installation_directory> \ (1)
        --log-level info (2)
    
    1 For <installation_directory>, specify the path to the directory that you stored the installation files in.
    2 To view different installation details, specify warn, debug, or error instead of info.

    If the command exits without a FATAL warning, your production control plane has initialized.

  2. Delete the bootstrap resources:

    $ az network nsg rule delete -g ${RESOURCE_GROUP} --nsg-name ${INFRA_ID}-nsg --name bootstrap_ssh_in
    $ az vm stop -g ${RESOURCE_GROUP} --name ${INFRA_ID}-bootstrap
    $ az vm deallocate -g ${RESOURCE_GROUP} --name ${INFRA_ID}-bootstrap
    $ az vm delete -g ${RESOURCE_GROUP} --name ${INFRA_ID}-bootstrap --yes
    $ az disk delete -g ${RESOURCE_GROUP} --name ${INFRA_ID}-bootstrap_OSDisk --no-wait --yes
    $ az network nic delete -g ${RESOURCE_GROUP} --name ${INFRA_ID}-bootstrap-nic --no-wait
    $ az storage blob delete --account-key ${ACCOUNT_KEY} --account-name ${CLUSTER_NAME}sa --container-name files --name bootstrap.ign
    $ az network public-ip delete -g ${RESOURCE_GROUP} --name ${INFRA_ID}-bootstrap-ssh-pip

Creating additional worker machines in Azure

You can create worker machines in Microsoft Azure for your cluster to use by launching individual instances discretely or by automated processes outside the cluster, such as Auto Scaling Groups. You can also take advantage of the built-in cluster scaling mechanisms and the machine API in OpenShift Container Platform.

In this example, you manually launch one instance by using the Azure Resource Manager (ARM) template. Additional instances can be launched by including additional resources of type 06_workers.json in the file.

If you do not use the provided ARM template to create your worker machines, you must review the provided information and manually create the infrastructure. If your cluster does not initialize correctly, you might have to contact Red Hat support with your installation logs.

Prerequisites
  • Configure an Azure account.

  • Generate the Ignition config files for your cluster.

  • Create and configure a VNet and associated subnets in Azure.

  • Create and configure networking and load balancers in Azure.

  • Create control plane and compute roles.

  • Create the bootstrap machine.

  • Create the control plane machines.

Procedure
  1. Copy the template from the ARM template for worker machines section of this topic and save it as 06_workers.json in your cluster’s installation directory. This template describes the worker machines that your cluster requires.

  2. Export the following variable needed by the worker machine deployment:

    $ export WORKER_IGNITION=`cat <installation_directory>/worker.ign | base64`
  3. Create the deployment by using the az CLI:

    $ az deployment group create -g ${RESOURCE_GROUP} \
      --template-file "<installation_directory>/06_workers.json" \
      --parameters workerIgnition="${WORKER_IGNITION}" \ (1)
      --parameters sshKeyData="${SSH_KEY}" \ (2)
      --parameters baseName="${INFRA_ID}" (3)
    1 The ignition content for the worker nodes.
    2 The SSH RSA public key file as a string.
    3 The base name to be used in resource names; this is usually the cluster’s Infra ID.

ARM template for worker machines

You can use the following Azure Resource Manager (ARM) template to deploy the worker machines that you need for your OpenShift Container Platform cluster:

06_workers.json ARM template
{
  "$schema" : "https://schema.management.azure.com/schemas/2015-01-01/deploymentTemplate.json#",
  "contentVersion" : "1.0.0.0",
  "parameters" : {
    "baseName" : {
      "type" : "string",
      "minLength" : 1,
      "metadata" : {
        "description" : "Base name to be used in resource names (usually the cluster's Infra ID)"
      }
    },
    "workerIgnition" : {
      "type" : "string",
      "metadata" : {
        "description" : "Ignition content for the worker nodes"
      }
    },
    "numberOfNodes" : {
      "type" : "int",
      "defaultValue" : 3,
      "minValue" : 2,
      "maxValue" : 30,
      "metadata" : {
        "description" : "Number of OpenShift compute nodes to deploy"
      }
    },
    "sshKeyData" : {
      "type" : "securestring",
      "metadata" : {
        "description" : "SSH RSA public key file as a string"
      }
    },
    "nodeVMSize" : {
      "type" : "string",
      "defaultValue" : "Standard_D4s_v3",
      "allowedValues" : [
        "Standard_A2",
        "Standard_A3",
        "Standard_A4",
        "Standard_A5",
        "Standard_A6",
        "Standard_A7",
        "Standard_A8",
        "Standard_A9",
        "Standard_A10",
        "Standard_A11",
        "Standard_D2",
        "Standard_D3",
        "Standard_D4",
        "Standard_D11",
        "Standard_D12",
        "Standard_D13",
        "Standard_D14",
        "Standard_D2_v2",
        "Standard_D3_v2",
        "Standard_D4_v2",
        "Standard_D5_v2",
        "Standard_D8_v3",
        "Standard_D11_v2",
        "Standard_D12_v2",
        "Standard_D13_v2",
        "Standard_D14_v2",
        "Standard_E2_v3",
        "Standard_E4_v3",
        "Standard_E8_v3",
        "Standard_E16_v3",
        "Standard_E32_v3",
        "Standard_E64_v3",
        "Standard_E2s_v3",
        "Standard_E4s_v3",
        "Standard_E8s_v3",
        "Standard_E16s_v3",
        "Standard_E32s_v3",
        "Standard_E64s_v3",
        "Standard_G1",
        "Standard_G2",
        "Standard_G3",
        "Standard_G4",
        "Standard_G5",
        "Standard_DS2",
        "Standard_DS3",
        "Standard_DS4",
        "Standard_DS11",
        "Standard_DS12",
        "Standard_DS13",
        "Standard_DS14",
        "Standard_DS2_v2",
        "Standard_DS3_v2",
        "Standard_DS4_v2",
        "Standard_DS5_v2",
        "Standard_DS11_v2",
        "Standard_DS12_v2",
        "Standard_DS13_v2",
        "Standard_DS14_v2",
        "Standard_GS1",
        "Standard_GS2",
        "Standard_GS3",
        "Standard_GS4",
        "Standard_GS5",
        "Standard_D2s_v3",
        "Standard_D4s_v3",
        "Standard_D8s_v3"
      ],
      "metadata" : {
        "description" : "The size of the each Node Virtual Machine"
      }
    }
  },
  "variables" : {
    "location" : "[resourceGroup().location]",
    "virtualNetworkName" : "[concat(parameters('baseName'), '-vnet')]",
    "virtualNetworkID" : "[resourceId('Microsoft.Network/virtualNetworks', variables('virtualNetworkName'))]",
    "nodeSubnetName" : "[concat(parameters('baseName'), '-worker-subnet')]",
    "nodeSubnetRef" : "[concat(variables('virtualNetworkID'), '/subnets/', variables('nodeSubnetName'))]",
    "infraLoadBalancerName" : "[parameters('baseName')]",
    "sshKeyPath" : "/home/capi/.ssh/authorized_keys",
    "identityName" : "[concat(parameters('baseName'), '-identity')]",
    "imageName" : "[concat(parameters('baseName'), '-image')]",
    "copy" : [
      {
        "name" : "vmNames",
        "count" :  "[parameters('numberOfNodes')]",
        "input" : "[concat(parameters('baseName'), '-worker-', variables('location'), '-', copyIndex('vmNames', 1))]"
      }
    ]
  },
  "resources" : [
    {
      "apiVersion" : "2019-05-01",
      "name" : "[concat('node', copyIndex())]",
      "type" : "Microsoft.Resources/deployments",
      "copy" : {
        "name" : "nodeCopy",
        "count" : "[length(variables('vmNames'))]"
      },
      "properties" : {
        "mode" : "Incremental",
        "template" : {
          "$schema" : "http://schema.management.azure.com/schemas/2015-01-01/deploymentTemplate.json#",
          "contentVersion" : "1.0.0.0",
          "resources" : [
            {
              "apiVersion" : "2018-06-01",
              "type" : "Microsoft.Network/networkInterfaces",
              "name" : "[concat(variables('vmNames')[copyIndex()], '-nic')]",
              "location" : "[variables('location')]",
              "properties" : {
                "ipConfigurations" : [
                  {
                    "name" : "pipConfig",
                    "properties" : {
                      "privateIPAllocationMethod" : "Dynamic",
                      "subnet" : {
                        "id" : "[variables('nodeSubnetRef')]"
                      }
                    }
                  }
                ]
              }
            },
            {
              "apiVersion" : "2018-06-01",
              "type" : "Microsoft.Compute/virtualMachines",
              "name" : "[variables('vmNames')[copyIndex()]]",
              "location" : "[variables('location')]",
              "tags" : {
                "kubernetes.io-cluster-ffranzupi": "owned"
              },
              "identity" : {
                "type" : "userAssigned",
                "userAssignedIdentities" : {
                  "[resourceID('Microsoft.ManagedIdentity/userAssignedIdentities/', variables('identityName'))]" : {}
                }
              },
              "dependsOn" : [
                "[concat('Microsoft.Network/networkInterfaces/', concat(variables('vmNames')[copyIndex()], '-nic'))]"
              ],
              "properties" : {
                "hardwareProfile" : {
                  "vmSize" : "[parameters('nodeVMSize')]"
                },
                "osProfile" : {
                  "computerName" : "[variables('vmNames')[copyIndex()]]",
                  "adminUsername" : "capi",
                  "customData" : "[parameters('workerIgnition')]",
                  "linuxConfiguration" : {
                    "disablePasswordAuthentication" : true,
                    "ssh" : {
                      "publicKeys" : [
                        {
                          "path" : "[variables('sshKeyPath')]",
                          "keyData" : "[parameters('sshKeyData')]"
                        }
                      ]
                    }
                  }
                },
                "storageProfile" : {
                  "imageReference": {
                    "id": "[resourceId('Microsoft.Compute/images', variables('imageName'))]"
                  },
                  "osDisk" : {
                    "name": "[concat(variables('vmNames')[copyIndex()],'_OSDisk')]",
                    "osType" : "Linux",
                    "createOption" : "FromImage",
                    "managedDisk": {
                      "storageAccountType": "Premium_LRS"
                    },
                    "diskSizeGB": 128
                  }
                },
                "networkProfile" : {
                  "networkInterfaces" : [
                    {
                      "id" : "[resourceId('Microsoft.Network/networkInterfaces', concat(variables('vmNames')[copyIndex()], '-nic'))]",
                      "properties": {
                        "primary": true
                      }
                    }
                  ]
                }
              }
            }
          ]
        }
      }
    }
  ]
}

Installing the CLI by downloading the binary

You can install the OpenShift CLI (oc) in order to interact with OpenShift Container Platform from a command-line interface. You can install oc on Linux, Windows, or macOS.

If you installed an earlier version of oc, you cannot use it to complete all of the commands in OpenShift Container Platform 4.5. Download and install the new version of oc.

Installing the CLI on Linux

You can install the OpenShift CLI (oc) binary on Linux by using the following procedure.

Procedure
  1. Navigate to the Infrastructure Provider page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site.

  2. Select your infrastructure provider, and, if applicable, your installation type.

  3. In the Command-line interface section, select Linux from the drop-down menu and click Download command-line tools.

  4. Unpack the archive:

    $ tar xvzf <file>
  5. Place the oc binary in a directory that is on your PATH.

    To check your PATH, execute the following command:

    $ echo $PATH

After you install the CLI, it is available using the oc command:

$ oc <command>

Installing the CLI on Windows

You can install the OpenShift CLI (oc) binary on Windows by using the following procedure.

Procedure
  1. Navigate to the Infrastructure Provider page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site.

  2. Select your infrastructure provider, and, if applicable, your installation type.

  3. In the Command-line interface section, select Windows from the drop-down menu and click Download command-line tools.

  4. Unzip the archive with a ZIP program.

  5. Move the oc binary to a directory that is on your PATH.

    To check your PATH, open the command prompt and execute the following command:

    C:\> path

After you install the CLI, it is available using the oc command:

C:\> oc <command>

Installing the CLI on macOS

You can install the OpenShift CLI (oc) binary on macOS by using the following procedure.

Procedure
  1. Navigate to the Infrastructure Provider page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site.

  2. Select your infrastructure provider, and, if applicable, your installation type.

  3. In the Command-line interface section, select MacOS from the drop-down menu and click Download command-line tools.

  4. Unpack and unzip the archive.

  5. Move the oc binary to a directory on your PATH.

    To check your PATH, open a terminal and execute the following command:

    $ echo $PATH

After you install the CLI, it is available using the oc command:

$ oc <command>

Logging in to the cluster

You can log in to your cluster as a default system user by exporting the cluster kubeconfig file. The kubeconfig file contains information about the cluster that is used by the CLI to connect a client to the correct cluster and API server. The file is specific to a cluster and is created during OpenShift Container Platform installation.

Prerequisites
  • Deploy an OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

  • Install the oc CLI.

Procedure
  1. Export the kubeadmin credentials:

    $ export KUBECONFIG=<installation_directory>/auth/kubeconfig (1)
    1 For <installation_directory>, specify the path to the directory that you stored the installation files in.
  2. Verify you can run oc commands successfully using the exported configuration:

    $ oc whoami
    Example output
    system:admin

Approving the CSRs for your machines

When you add machines to a cluster, two pending certificate signing requests (CSRs) are generated for each machine that you added. You must confirm that these CSRs are approved or, if necessary, approve them yourself.

Prerequisites
  • You added machines to your cluster.

Procedure
  1. Confirm that the cluster recognizes the machines:

    $ oc get nodes
    Example output
    NAME      STATUS    ROLES   AGE  VERSION
    master-0  Ready     master  63m  v1.18.3
    master-1  Ready     master  63m  v1.18.3
    master-2  Ready     master  64m  v1.18.3
    worker-0  NotReady  worker  76s  v1.18.3
    worker-1  NotReady  worker  70s  v1.18.3

    The output lists all of the machines that you created.

  2. Review the pending CSRs and ensure that you see a client and server request with the Pending or Approved status for each machine that you added to the cluster:

    $ oc get csr
    Example output
    NAME        AGE     REQUESTOR                                                                   CONDITION
    csr-8b2br   15m     system:serviceaccount:openshift-machine-config-operator:node-bootstrapper   Pending (1)
    csr-8vnps   15m     system:serviceaccount:openshift-machine-config-operator:node-bootstrapper   Pending
    csr-bfd72   5m26s   system:node:ip-10-0-50-126.us-east-2.compute.internal                       Pending (2)
    csr-c57lv   5m26s   system:node:ip-10-0-95-157.us-east-2.compute.internal                       Pending
    ...
    1 A client request CSR.
    2 A server request CSR.

    In this example, two machines are joining the cluster. You might see more approved CSRs in the list.

  3. If the CSRs were not approved, after all of the pending CSRs for the machines you added are in Pending status, approve the CSRs for your cluster machines:

    Because the CSRs rotate automatically, approve your CSRs within an hour of adding the machines to the cluster. If you do not approve them within an hour, the certificates will rotate, and more than two certificates will be present for each node. You must approve all of these certificates. After you approve the initial CSRs, the subsequent node client CSRs are automatically approved by the cluster kube-controller-manager. You must implement a method of automatically approving the kubelet serving certificate requests.

    • To approve them individually, run the following command for each valid CSR:

      $ oc adm certificate approve <csr_name> (1)
      1 <csr_name> is the name of a CSR from the list of current CSRs.
    • To approve all pending CSRs, run the following command:

      $ oc get csr -o go-template='{{range .items}}{{if not .status}}{{.metadata.name}}{{"\n"}}{{end}}{{end}}' | xargs oc adm certificate approve
Additional information

Adding the Ingress DNS records

If you removed the DNS Zone configuration when creating Kubernetes manifests and generating Ignition configs, you must manually create DNS records that point at the Ingress load balancer. You can create either a wildcard *.apps.{baseDomain}. or specific records. You can use A, CNAME, and other records per your requirements.

Prerequisites
  • You deployed an OpenShift Container Platform cluster on Microsoft Azure by using infrastructure that you provisioned.

  • Install the OpenShift CLI (oc).

  • Install the jq package.

  • Install or update the Azure CLI.

Procedure
  1. Confirm the Ingress router has created a load balancer and populated the EXTERNAL-IP field:

    $ oc -n openshift-ingress get service router-default
    Example output
    NAME             TYPE           CLUSTER-IP      EXTERNAL-IP     PORT(S)                      AGE
    router-default   LoadBalancer   172.30.20.10   35.130.120.110   80:32288/TCP,443:31215/TCP   20
  2. Export the Ingress router IP as a variable:

    $ export PUBLIC_IP_ROUTER=`oc -n openshift-ingress get service router-default --no-headers | awk '{print $4}'`
  3. Add a *.apps record to the public DNS zone.

    1. If you are adding this cluster to a new public zone, run:

      $ az network dns record-set a add-record -g ${BASE_DOMAIN_RESOURCE_GROUP} -z ${CLUSTER_NAME}.${BASE_DOMAIN} -n *.apps -a ${PUBLIC_IP_ROUTER} --ttl 300
    2. If you are adding this cluster to an already existing public zone, run:

      $ az network dns record-set a add-record -g ${BASE_DOMAIN_RESOURCE_GROUP} -z ${BASE_DOMAIN} -n *.apps.${CLUSTER_NAME} -a ${PUBLIC_IP_ROUTER} --ttl 300
  4. Add a *.apps record to the private DNS zone:

    1. Create a *.apps record by using the following command:

      $ az network private-dns record-set a create -g ${RESOURCE_GROUP} -z ${CLUSTER_NAME}.${BASE_DOMAIN} -n *.apps --ttl 300
    2. Add the *.apps record to the private DNS zone by using the following command:

      $ az network private-dns record-set a add-record -g ${RESOURCE_GROUP} -z ${CLUSTER_NAME}.${BASE_DOMAIN} -n *.apps -a ${PUBLIC_IP_ROUTER}

If you prefer to add explicit domains instead of using a wildcard, you can create entries for each of the cluster’s current Routes:

$ oc get --all-namespaces -o jsonpath='{range .items[*]}{range .status.ingress[*]}{.host}{"\n"}{end}{end}' routes
Example output
oauth-openshift.apps.cluster.basedomain.com
console-openshift-console.apps.cluster.basedomain.com
downloads-openshift-console.apps.cluster.basedomain.com
alertmanager-main-openshift-monitoring.apps.cluster.basedomain.com
grafana-openshift-monitoring.apps.cluster.basedomain.com
prometheus-k8s-openshift-monitoring.apps.cluster.basedomain.com

Completing an Azure installation on user-provisioned infrastructure

After you start the OpenShift Container Platform installation on Microsoft Azure user-provisioned infrastructure, you can monitor the cluster events until the cluster is ready.

Prerequisites
  • Deploy the bootstrap machine for an OpenShift Container Platform cluster on user-provisioned Azure infrastructure.

  • Install the oc CLI and log in.

Procedure
  • Complete the cluster installation:

    $ ./openshift-install --dir=<installation_directory> wait-for install-complete (1)
    Example output
    INFO Waiting up to 30m0s for the cluster to initialize...
    1 For <installation_directory>, specify the path to the directory that you stored the installation files in.

    The Ignition config files that the installation program generates contain certificates that expire after 24 hours. You must keep the cluster running for 24 hours in a non-degraded state to ensure that the first certificate rotation has finished.