$ oc api-resources
This document provides information about advanced features and functionalities of OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP).
A source cluster might offer multiple versions of an API, where one of these versions is the preferred API version. For example, a source cluster with an API named
Example might be available in the
example.com/v1beta2 API groups.
If you use Velero to back up and restore such a source cluster, Velero backs up only the version of that resource that uses the preferred version of its Kubernetes API.
To return to the above example, if
example.com/v1 is the preferred API, then Velero only backs up the version of a resource that uses
example.com/v1. Moreover, the target cluster needs to have
example.com/v1 registered in its set of available API resources in order for Velero to restore the resource on the target cluster.
Therefore, you need to generate a list of the Kubernetes API group versions on your target cluster to be sure the preferred API version is registered in its set of available API resources.
Enter the following command:
$ oc api-resources
By default, Velero only backs up resources that use the preferred version of the Kubernetes API. However, Velero also includes a feature, Enable API Group Versions, that overcomes this limitation. When enabled on the source cluster, this feature causes Velero to back up all Kubernetes API group versions that are supported on the cluster, not only the preferred one. After the versions are stored in the backup .tar file, they are available to be restored on the destination cluster.
For example, a source cluster with an API named
Example might be available in the
example.com/v1beta2 API groups, with
example.com/v1 being the preferred API.
Without the Enable API Group Versions feature enabled, Velero backs up only the preferred API group version for
Example, which is
example.com/v1. With the feature enabled, Velero also backs up
When the Enable API Group Versions feature is enabled on the destination cluster, Velero selects the version to restore on the basis of the order of priority of API group versions.
Enable API Group Versions is still in beta.
Velero uses the following algorithm to assign priorities to API versions, with
1 as the top priority:
Preferred version of the destination cluster
Preferred version of the source_ cluster
Common non-preferred supported version with the highest Kubernetes version priority
You can use Velero’s Enable API Group Versions feature to back up all Kubernetes API group versions that are supported on a cluster, not only the preferred one.
Enable API Group Versions is still in beta.
EnableAPIGroupVersions feature flag:
apiVersion: oadp.openshift.io/vialpha1 kind: DataProtectionApplication ... spec: configuration: velero: featureFlags: - EnableAPIGroupVersions
OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) is designed to back up and restore application data in the same OpenShift Container Platform cluster. Migration Toolkit for Containers (MTC) is designed to migrate containers, including application data, from one OpenShift Container Platform cluster to another cluster.
You can use OADP to back up application data from one OpenShift Container Platform cluster and restore it on another cluster. However, doing so is more complicated than using MTC or using OADP to back up and restore on the same cluster.
To successfully use OADP to back up data from one cluster and restore it to another cluster, you must take into account the following factors, in addition to the prerequisites and procedures that apply to using OADP to back up and restore data on the same cluster:
Use of Velero
UID and GID ranges
You must exclude Operators from the backup of an application for backup and restore to succeed.
Velero, which OADP is built upon, does not natively support migrating persistent volume snapshots across cloud providers. To migrate volume snapshot data between cloud platforms, you must either enable the Velero Restic file system backup option, which backs up volume contents at the filesystem level, or use the OADP Data Mover for CSI snapshots.
In OADP 1.1 and earlier, the Velero Restic file system backup option is called
Velero’s file system backup feature supports both Kopia and Restic, but currently OADP supports only Restic.
You must also use Velero’s File System Backup to migrate data between AWS regions or between Microsoft Azure regions.
Velero does not support restoring data to a cluster with an earlier Kubernetes version than the source cluster.
It is theoretically possible to migrate workloads to a destination with a later Kubernetes version than the source, but you must consider the compatibility of API groups between clusters for each custom resource. If a Kubernetes version upgrade breaks the compatibility of core or native API groups, you must first update the impacted custom resources.
When you back up data from one cluster and restore it to another cluster, there are potential issues that might arise with UID (User ID) and GID (Group ID) ranges. The following section explains these potential issues and mitigations:
The UID and GID ranges of the namespace might change on the destination cluster. OADP does not back up and restore OpenShift UID range metadata. If the backed application requires a specific UID, ensure the range is available when restored. For more information about OpenShift’s UID and GID ranges, see A Guide to OpenShift and UIDs.
When you create a namespace in OpenShift Container Platform by using the shell command
oc create namespace, OpenShift Container Platform assigns the namespace a unique User ID (UID) range from its available pool of UIDs, a Supplemental Group (GID) range, and unique SELinux MCS labels. This information is stored in the
metadata.annotations field of the cluster. This information is part of the Security Context Constraints (SCC) annotations, which comprise the following components:
When you use OADP to restore the namespace, it automatically uses the information in
metadata.annotations without resetting it for the destination cluster. As a result, the workload might not have access to the backed up data if one of the following is true:
There is a pre-existing namespace with different SCC annotations, for example, on a different cluster. In this case, at backup time, OADP reuses the pre-existing namespace instead of the namespace you are trying to restore.
The backup used a label selector, but the namespace where workloads run on does not have the label on it. In this case, OADP does not back up the namespace, but instead creates a new namespace during restore that does not include the annotations of the namespace you backed up. This causes a new UID range to be assigned to the namespace.
This might be an issue for customer workloads if OpenShift Container Platform assigns a pod a
securityContext UID based on namespace annotations that have changed from the time the persistent volume data was backed up.
The container UID no longer matches the UID of the file owner.
An error occurs because OpenShift Container Platform did not modify the UID range of the destination cluster to match the data of the backup cluster. As a result, the backup cluster has a different UID than the destination cluster, which means the application cannot read or write data to the destination cluster.
You can use one or more of the following mitigations to resolve the UID and GID range issues:
If you use a label selector in the
Backup CR to filter the objects to include in the backup, be sure to add this label selector to the namespace that contains the workspace.
Remove any pre-existing version of a namespace on the destination cluster before attempting to restore a namespace with the same name.
Fix UID ranges after migration by performing steps 1-4 of Fixing UID ranges after migration. Step 1 is optional.
For an in-depth discussion of UID and GID ranges in OpenShift Container Platform with an emphasis on overcoming issues in backing up data on one cluster and restoring it on another, see A Guide to OpenShift and UIDs.
In general, you back up data from one OpenShift Container Platform cluster and restore it on another OpenShift Container Platform cluster in the same way that you back up and restore data to the same cluster. However, there are some additional prerequisites and differences in the procedure when backing up data from one OpenShift Container Platform cluster and restoring it on another.
All relevant prerequisites for backing up and restoring on your platform (for example, AWS, Microsoft Azure, GCP, and so on), especially the prerequisites for the Data Protection Application (DPA), are described in the relevant sections of this guide.
Make the following additions to the procedures given for your platform:
Ensure that the backup store location (BSL) and volume snapshot location have the same names and paths to restore resources to another cluster.
Share the same object storage location credentials across the clusters.
For best results, use OADP to create the namespace on the destination cluster.
If you use the Velero
file-system-backup option, enable the
--default-volumes-to-fs-backup flag for use during backup by running the following command:
$ velero backup create <backup_name> --default-volumes-to-fs-backup <any_other_options>
In OADP 1.2 and later, the Velero Restic option is called
For more information about API group versions, see Working with different Kubernetes API versions on the same cluster.
For more information about OADP Data Mover, see Using Data Mover for CSI snapshots.
For more information about using Restic with OADP, see Backing up applications with Restic.