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Understanding versioning

Red Hat uses semantic versioning for product releases. Semantic Versioning is a 3-component number in the format of X.Y.Z, where:

  • X stands for a Major version. Major releases usually denote some sort of breaking change: architectural changes, API changes, schema changes, and similar major updates.

  • Y stands for a Minor version. Minor releases contain new features and functionality while maintaining backwards compatibility.

  • Z stands for a Patch version (also known as a z-stream release). Patch releases are used to addresses Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVEs) and release bug fixes. New features and functionality are generally not released as part of a Patch release.

How versioning affects Service Mesh upgrades

Depending on the version of the update you are making, the upgrade process is different.

  • Patch updates - Patch upgrades are managed by the Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM); they happen automatically when you update your Operators.

  • Minor upgrades - Minor upgrades require both updating to the most recent Red Hat OpenShift Service Mesh Operator version and manually modifying the spec.version value in your ServiceMeshControlPlane resources.

  • Major upgrades - Major upgrades require both updating to the most recent Red Hat OpenShift Service Mesh Operator version and manually modifying the spec.version value in your ServiceMeshControlPlane resources. Because major upgrades can contain changes that are not backwards compatible, additional manual changes might be required.

Understanding Service Mesh versions

In order to understand what version of Red Hat OpenShift Service Mesh you have deployed on your system, you need to understand how each of the component versions is managed.

  • Operator version - The most current Operator version is 2.2.2. The Operator version number only indicates the version of the currently installed Operator. Because the Red Hat OpenShift Service Mesh Operator supports multiple versions of the Service Mesh control plane, the version of the Operator does not determine the version of your deployed ServiceMeshControlPlane resources.

    Upgrading to the latest Operator version automatically applies patch updates, but does not automatically upgrade your Service Mesh control plane to the latest minor version.

  • ServiceMeshControlPlane version - The ServiceMeshControlPlane version determines what version of Red Hat OpenShift Service Mesh you are using. The value of the spec.version field in the ServiceMeshControlPlane resource controls the architecture and configuration settings that are used to install and deploy Red Hat OpenShift Service Mesh. When you create the Service Mesh control plane you can set the version in one of two ways:

    • To configure in the Form View, select the version from the Control Plane Version menu.

    • To configure in the YAML View, set the value for spec.version in the YAML file.

Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) does not manage Service Mesh control plane upgrades, so the version number for your Operator and ServiceMeshControlPlane (SMCP) may not match, unless you have manually upgraded your SMCP.

Upgrade considerations

The maistra.io/ label or annotation should not be used on a user-created custom resource, because it indicates that the resource was generated by and should be managed by the Red Hat OpenShift Service Mesh Operator.

During the upgrade, the Operator makes changes, including deleting or replacing files, to resources that include the following labels or annotations that indicate that the resource is managed by the Operator.

Before upgrading check for user-created custom resources that include the following labels or annotations:

  • maistra.io/ AND the app.kubernetes.io/managed-by label set to maistra-istio-operator (Red Hat OpenShift Service Mesh)

  • kiali.io/ (Kiali)

  • jaegertracing.io/ (Red Hat OpenShift distributed tracing platform)

  • logging.openshift.io/ (Red Hat Elasticsearch)

Before upgrading, check your user-created custom resources for labels or annotations that indicate they are Operator managed. Remove the label or annotation from custom resources that you do not want to be managed by the Operator.

When upgrading to version 2.0, the Operator only deletes resources with these labels in the same namespace as the SMCP.

When upgrading to version 2.1, the Operator deletes resources with these labels in all namespaces.

Known issues that may affect upgrade

Known issues that may affect your upgrade include:

  • Red Hat OpenShift Service Mesh does not support the use of EnvoyFilter configuration except where explicitly documented. This is due to tight coupling with the underlying Envoy APIs, meaning that backward compatibility cannot be maintained. If you are using Envoy Filters, and the configuration generated by Istio has changed due to the lastest version of Envoy introduced by upgrading your ServiceMeshControlPlane, that has the potential to break any EnvoyFilter you may have implemented.

  • OSSM-1505 ServiceMeshExtension does not work with OpenShift Container Platform version 4.11. Because ServiceMeshExtension has been deprecated in Red Hat OpenShift Service Mesh 2.2, this known issue will not be fixed and you must migrate your extensions to WasmPluging

  • OSSM-1396 If a gateway resource contains the spec.externalIPs setting, rather than being recreated when the ServiceMeshControlPlane is updated, the gateway is removed and never recreated.

  • OSSM-1052 When configuring a Service ExternalIP for the ingressgateway in the Service Mesh control plane, the service is not created. The schema for the SMCP is missing the parameter for the service.

    Workaround: Disable the gateway creation in the SMCP spec and manage the gateway deployment entirely manually (including Service, Role and RoleBinding).

Upgrading the Operators

In order to keep your Service Mesh patched with the latest security fixes, bug fixes, and software updates, you must keep your Operators updated. You initiate patch updates by upgrading your Operators.

The version of the Operator does not determine the version of your service mesh. The version of your deployed Service Mesh control plane determines your version of Service Mesh.

Because the Red Hat OpenShift Service Mesh Operator supports multiple versions of the Service Mesh control plane, updating the Red Hat OpenShift Service Mesh Operator does not update the spec.version value of your deployed ServiceMeshControlPlane. Also note that the spec.version value is a two digit number, for example 2.2, and that patch updates, for example 2.2.1, are not reflected in the SMCP version value.

Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) controls the installation, upgrade, and role-based access control (RBAC) of Operators in a cluster. The OLM runs by default in OpenShift Container Platform. OLM queries for available Operators as well as upgrades for installed Operators.

Whether or not you have to take action to upgrade your Operators depends on the settings you selected when installing them. When you installed each of your Operators, you selected an Update Channel and an Approval Strategy. The combination of these two settings determine when and how your Operators are updated.

Table 1. Interaction of Update Channel and Approval Strategy
Versioned channel "Stable" or "Preview" Channel

Automatic

Automatically updates the Operator for minor and patch releases for that version only. Will not automatically update to the next major version (that is, from version 2.0 to 3.0). Manual change to Operator subscription required to update to the next major version.

Automatically updates Operator for all major, minor, and patch releases.

Manual

Manual updates required for minor and patch releases for the specified version. Manual change to Operator subscription required to update to the next major version.

Manual updates required for all major, minor, and patch releases.

When you update your Red Hat OpenShift Service Mesh Operator the Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) removes the old Operator pod and starts a new pod. Once the new Operator pod starts, the reconciliation process checks the ServiceMeshControlPlane (SMCP), and if there are updated container images available for any of the Service Mesh control plane components, it replaces those Service Mesh control plane pods with ones that use the new container images.

When you upgrade the Kiali and Red Hat OpenShift distributed tracing platform Operators, the OLM reconciliation process scans the cluster and upgrades the managed instances to the version of the new Operator. For example, if you update the Red Hat OpenShift distributed tracing platform Operator from version 1.30.2 to version 1.34.1, the Operator scans for running instances of distributed tracing platform and upgrades them to 1.34.1 as well.

To stay on a particular patch version of Red Hat OpenShift Service Mesh, you would need to disable automatic updates and remain on that specific version of the Operator.

For more information about upgrading Operators, refer to the Operator Lifecycle Manager documentation.

Upgrading the control plane

You must manually update the control plane for minor and major releases. The community Istio project recommends canary upgrades, Red Hat OpenShift Service Mesh only supports in-place upgrades. Red Hat OpenShift Service Mesh requires that you upgrade from each minor release to the next minor release in sequence. For example, you must upgrade from version 2.0 to version 2.1, and then upgrade to version 2.2. You cannot update from Red Hat OpenShift Service Mesh 2.0 to 2.2 directly.

When you upgrade the service mesh control plane, all Operator managed resources, for example gateways, are also upgraded.

Although you can deploy multiple versions of the control plane in the same cluster, Red Hat OpenShift Service Mesh does not support canary upgrades of the service mesh. That is, you can have different SCMP resources with different values for spec.version, but they cannot be managing the same mesh.

Upgrade changes from version 2.1 to version 2.2

Upgrading the Service Mesh control plane from version 2.1 to 2.2 introduces the following behavioral changes:

  • The istio-node DaemonSet is renamed to istio-cni-node to match the name in upstream Istio.

  • Istio 1.10 updated Envoy to send traffic to the application container using eth0 rather than lo by default.

  • This release adds support for the WasmPlugin API and deprecates the ServiceMeshExtention API.

For more information about migrating your extensions, refer to Migrating from ServiceMeshExtension to WasmPlugin resources.

Upgrade changes from version 2.0 to version 2.1

Upgrading the Service Mesh control plane from version 2.0 to 2.1 introduces the following architectural and behavioral changes.

Architecture changes

Mixer has been completely removed in Red Hat OpenShift Service Mesh 2.1. Upgrading from a Red Hat OpenShift Service Mesh 2.0.x release to 2.1 will be blocked if Mixer is enabled.

If you see the following message when upgrading from v2.0 to v2.1, update the existing Mixer type to Istiod type in the existing Control Plane spec before you update the .spec.version field:

An error occurred
admission webhook smcp.validation.maistra.io denied the request: [support for policy.type "Mixer" and policy.Mixer options have been removed in v2.1, please use another alternative, support for telemetry.type "Mixer" and telemetry.Mixer options have been removed in v2.1, please use another alternative]”

For example:

apiVersion: maistra.io/v2
kind: ServiceMeshControlPlane
spec:
  policy:
    type: Istiod
  telemetry:
    type: Istiod
  version: v2.2
Behavioral changes
  • AuthorizationPolicy updates:

    • With the PROXY protocol, if you’re using ipBlocks and notIpBlocks to specify remote IP addresses, update the configuration to use remoteIpBlocks and notRemoteIpBlocks instead.

    • Added support for nested JSON Web Token (JWT) claims.

  • EnvoyFilter breaking changes>

    • Must use typed_config

    • xDS v2 is no longer supported

    • Deprecated filter names

  • Older versions of proxies may report 503 status codes when receiving 1xx or 204 status codes from newer proxies.

Upgrading the Service Mesh control plane

To upgrade Red Hat OpenShift Service Mesh, you must update the version field of the Red Hat OpenShift Service Mesh ServiceMeshControlPlane v2 resource. Then, once it is configured and applied, restart the application pods to update each sidecar proxy and its configuration.

Prerequisites
  • You are running OpenShift Container Platform 4.9 or later.

  • You have the latest Red Hat OpenShift Service Mesh Operator.

Procedure
  1. Switch to the project that contains your ServiceMeshControlPlane resource. In this example, istio-system is the name of the Service Mesh control plane project.

    $ oc project istio-system
  2. Check your v2 ServiceMeshControlPlane resource configuration to verify it is valid.

    1. Run the following command to view your ServiceMeshControlPlane resource as a v2 resource.

      $ oc get smcp -o yaml

      Back up your Service Mesh control plane configuration.

  3. Update the .spec.version field and apply the configuration.

    For example:

    apiVersion: maistra.io/v2
    kind: ServiceMeshControlPlane
    metadata:
      name: basic
    spec:
      version: v2.2

    Alternatively, instead of using the command line, you can use the web console to edit the Service Mesh control plane. In the OpenShift Container Platform web console, click Project and select the project name you just entered.

    1. Click OperatorsInstalled Operators.

    2. Find your ServiceMeshControlPlane instance.

    3. Select YAML view and update text of the YAML file, as shown in the previous example.

    4. Click Save.

Migrating Red Hat OpenShift Service Mesh from version 1.1 to version 2.0

Upgrading from version 1.1 to 2.0 requires manual steps that migrate your workloads and application to a new instance of Red Hat OpenShift Service Mesh running the new version.

Prerequisites
  • You must upgrade to OpenShift Container Platform 4.7. before you upgrade to Red Hat OpenShift Service Mesh 2.0.

  • You must have Red Hat OpenShift Service Mesh version 2.0 operator. If you selected the automatic upgrade path, the operator automatically downloads the latest information. However, there are steps you must take to use the features in Red Hat OpenShift Service Mesh version 2.0.

Upgrading Red Hat OpenShift Service Mesh

To upgrade Red Hat OpenShift Service Mesh, you must create an instance of Red Hat OpenShift Service Mesh ServiceMeshControlPlane v2 resource in a new namespace. Then, once it’s configured, move your microservice applications and workloads from your old mesh to the new service mesh.

Procedure
  1. Check your v1 ServiceMeshControlPlane resource configuration to make sure it is valid.

    1. Run the following command to view your ServiceMeshControlPlane resource as a v2 resource.

      $ oc get smcp -o yaml
    2. Check the spec.techPreview.errored.message field in the output for information about any invalid fields.

    3. If there are invalid fields in your v1 resource, the resource is not reconciled and cannot be edited as a v2 resource. All updates to v2 fields will be overridden by the original v1 settings. To fix the invalid fields, you can replace, patch, or edit the v1 version of the resource. You can also delete the resource without fixing it. After the resource has been fixed, it can be reconciled, and you can to modify or view the v2 version of the resource.

    4. To fix the resource by editing a file, use oc get to retrieve the resource, edit the text file locally, and replace the resource with the file you edited.

      $ oc get smcp.v1.maistra.io <smcp_name> > smcp-resource.yaml
      #Edit the smcp-resource.yaml file.
      $ oc replace -f smcp-resource.yaml
    5. To fix the resource using patching, use oc patch.

      $ oc patch smcp.v1.maistra.io <smcp_name> --type json --patch '[{"op": "replace","path":"/spec/path/to/bad/setting","value":"corrected-value"}]'
    6. To fix the resource by editing with command line tools, use oc edit.

      $ oc edit smcp.v1.maistra.io <smcp_name>
  2. Back up your Service Mesh control plane configuration. Switch to the project that contains your ServiceMeshControlPlane resource. In this example, istio-system is the name of the Service Mesh control plane project.

    $ oc project istio-system
  3. Enter the following command to retrieve the current configuration. Your <smcp_name> is specified in the metadata of your ServiceMeshControlPlane resource, for example basic-install or full-install.

    $ oc get servicemeshcontrolplanes.v1.maistra.io <smcp_name> -o yaml > <smcp_name>.v1.yaml
  4. Convert your ServiceMeshControlPlane to a v2 control plane version that contains information about your configuration as a starting point.

    $ oc get smcp <smcp_name> -o yaml > <smcp_name>.v2.yaml
  5. Create a project. In the OpenShift Container Platform console Project menu, click New Project and enter a name for your project, istio-system-upgrade, for example. Or, you can run this command from the CLI.

    $ oc new-project istio-system-upgrade
  6. Update the metadata.namespace field in your v2 ServiceMeshControlPlane with your new project name. In this example, use istio-system-upgrade.

  7. Update the version field from 1.1 to 2.0 or remove it in your v2 ServiceMeshControlPlane.

  8. Create a ServiceMeshControlPlane in the new namespace. On the command line, run the following command to deploy the control plane with the v2 version of the ServiceMeshControlPlane that you retrieved. In this example, replace `<smcp_name.v2> `with the path to your file.

    $ oc create -n istio-system-upgrade -f <smcp_name>.v2.yaml

    Alternatively, you can use the console to create the Service Mesh control plane. In the OpenShift Container Platform web console, click Project. Then, select the project name you just entered.

    1. Click OperatorsInstalled Operators.

    2. Click Create ServiceMeshControlPlane.

    3. Select YAML view and paste text of the YAML file you retrieved into the field. Check that the apiVersion field is set to maistra.io/v2 and modify the metadata.namespace field to use the new namespace, for example istio-system-upgrade.

    4. Click Create.

Configuring the 2.0 ServiceMeshControlPlane

The ServiceMeshControlPlane resource has been changed for Red Hat OpenShift Service Mesh version 2.0. After you created a v2 version of the ServiceMeshControlPlane resource, modify it to take advantage of the new features and to fit your deployment. Consider the following changes to the specification and behavior of Red Hat OpenShift Service Mesh 2.0 as you’re modifying your ServiceMeshControlPlane resource. You can also refer to the Red Hat OpenShift Service Mesh 2.0 product documentation for new information to features you use. The v2 resource must be used for Red Hat OpenShift Service Mesh 2.0 installations.

Architecture changes

The architectural units used by previous versions have been replaced by Istiod. In 2.0 the Service Mesh control plane components Mixer, Pilot, Citadel, Galley, and the sidecar injector functionality have been combined into a single component, Istiod.

Although Mixer is no longer supported as a control plane component, Mixer policy and telemetry plug-ins are now supported through WASM extensions in Istiod. Mixer can be enabled for policy and telemetry if you need to integrate legacy Mixer plug-ins.

Secret Discovery Service (SDS) is used to distribute certificates and keys to sidecars directly from Istiod. In Red Hat OpenShift Service Mesh version 1.1, secrets were generated by Citadel, which were used by the proxies to retrieve their client certificates and keys.

Annotation changes

The following annotations are no longer supported in v2.0. If you are using one of these annotations, you must update your workload before moving it to a v2.0 Service Mesh control plane.

  • sidecar.maistra.io/proxyCPULimit has been replaced with sidecar.istio.io/proxyCPULimit. If you were using sidecar.maistra.io annotations on your workloads, you must modify those workloads to use sidecar.istio.io equivalents instead.

  • sidecar.maistra.io/proxyMemoryLimit has been replaced with sidecar.istio.io/proxyMemoryLimit

  • sidecar.istio.io/discoveryAddress is no longer supported. Also, the default discovery address has moved from pilot.<control_plane_namespace>.svc:15010 (or port 15011, if mtls is enabled) to istiod-<smcp_name>.<control_plane_namespace>.svc:15012.

  • The health status port is no longer configurable and is hard-coded to 15021. * If you were defining a custom status port, for example, status.sidecar.istio.io/port, you must remove the override before moving the workload to a v2.0 Service Mesh control plane. Readiness checks can still be disabled by setting the status port to 0.

  • Kubernetes Secret resources are no longer used to distribute client certificates for sidecars. Certificates are now distributed through Istiod’s SDS service. If you were relying on mounted secrets, they are longer available for workloads in v2.0 Service Mesh control planes.

Behavioral changes

Some features in Red Hat OpenShift Service Mesh 2.0 work differently than they did in previous versions.

  • The readiness port on gateways has moved from 15020 to 15021.

  • The target host visibility includes VirtualService, as well as ServiceEntry resources. It includes any restrictions applied through Sidecar resources.

  • Automatic mutual TLS is enabled by default. Proxy to proxy communication is automatically configured to use mTLS, regardless of global PeerAuthentication policies in place.

  • Secure connections are always used when proxies communicate with the Service Mesh control plane regardless of spec.security.controlPlane.mtls setting. The spec.security.controlPlane.mtls setting is only used when configuring connections for Mixer telemetry or policy.

Migration details for unsupported resources
Policy (authentication.istio.io/v1alpha1)

Policy resources must be migrated to new resource types for use with v2.0 Service Mesh control planes, PeerAuthentication and RequestAuthentication. Depending on the specific configuration in your Policy resource, you may have to configure multiple resources to achieve the same effect.

Mutual TLS

Mutual TLS enforcement is accomplished using the security.istio.io/v1beta1 PeerAuthentication resource. The legacy spec.peers.mtls.mode field maps directly to the new resource’s spec.mtls.mode field. Selection criteria has changed from specifying a service name in spec.targets[x].name to a label selector in spec.selector.matchLabels. In PeerAuthentication, the labels must match the selector on the services named in the targets list. Any port-specific settings will need to be mapped into spec.portLevelMtls.

Authentication

Additional authentication methods specified in spec.origins, must be mapped into a security.istio.io/v1beta1 RequestAuthentication resource. spec.selector.matchLabels must be configured similarly to the same field on PeerAuthentication. Configuration specific to JWT principals from spec.origins.jwt items map to similar fields in spec.rules items.

  • spec.origins[x].jwt.triggerRules specified in the Policy must be mapped into one or more security.istio.io/v1beta1 AuthorizationPolicy resources. Any spec.selector.labels must be configured similarly to the same field on RequestAuthentication.

  • spec.origins[x].jwt.triggerRules.excludedPaths must be mapped into an AuthorizationPolicy whose spec.action is set to ALLOW, with spec.rules[x].to.operation.path entries matching the excluded paths.

  • spec.origins[x].jwt.triggerRules.includedPaths must be mapped into a separate AuthorizationPolicy whose spec.action is set to ALLOW, with spec.rules[x].to.operation.path entries matching the included paths, and spec.rules.[x].from.source.requestPrincipals entries that align with the specified spec.origins[x].jwt.issuer in the Policy resource.

ServiceMeshPolicy (maistra.io/v1)

ServiceMeshPolicy was configured automatically for the Service Mesh control plane through the spec.istio.global.mtls.enabled in the v1 resource or spec.security.dataPlane.mtls in the v2 resource setting. For v2 control planes, a functionally equivalent PeerAuthentication resource is created during installation. This feature is deprecated in Red Hat OpenShift Service Mesh version 2.0

RbacConfig, ServiceRole, ServiceRoleBinding (rbac.istio.io/v1alpha1)

These resources were replaced by the security.istio.io/v1beta1 AuthorizationPolicy resource.

Mimicking RbacConfig behavior requires writing a default AuthorizationPolicy whose settings depend on the spec.mode specified in the RbacConfig.

  • When spec.mode is set to OFF, no resource is required as the default policy is ALLOW, unless an AuthorizationPolicy applies to the request.

  • When spec.mode is set to ON, set spec: {}. You must create AuthorizationPolicy policies for all services in the mesh.

  • spec.mode is set to ON_WITH_INCLUSION, must create an AuthorizationPolicy with spec: {} in each included namespace. Inclusion of individual services is not supported by AuthorizationPolicy. However, as soon as any AuthorizationPolicy is created that applies to the workloads for the service, all other requests not explicitly allowed will be denied.

  • When spec.mode is set to ON_WITH_EXCLUSION, it is not supported by AuthorizationPolicy. A global DENY policy can be created, but an AuthorizationPolicy must be created for every workload in the mesh because there is no allow-all policy that can be applied to either a namespace or a workload.

AuthorizationPolicy includes configuration for both the selector to which the configuratio