The 3scale Istio Adapter allows you to label a service running within the Red Hat OpenShift Service Mesh and integrate that service with the 3scale API Management solution.

Integrate the 3Scale adapter with Red Hat OpenShift Service Mesh

You can use these examples to configure requests to your services using the 3scale Istio Adapter.

Prerequisites:

To configure the 3scale Istio Adapter, refer to Red Hat OpenShift Service Mesh custom resources for instructions on adding adapter parameters to the custom resource file.

Pay particular attention to the kind: handler resource. You must update this with your 3scale credentials and the service ID of the API you want to manage.

  1. Modify the handler configuration with your 3scale configuration.

    Handler configuration example
      apiVersion: "config.istio.io/v1alpha2"
      kind: handler
      metadata:
       name: threescale
      spec:
       adapter: threescale
       params:
         service_id: "<SERVICE_ID>"
         system_url: "https://<organization>-admin.3scale.net/"
         access_token: "<ACCESS_TOKEN>"
       connection:
         address: "threescale-istio-adapter:3333"
  2. Modify the rule configuration with your 3scale configuration to dispatch the rule to the threescale handler.

    Rule configuration example
      apiVersion: "config.istio.io/v1alpha2"
      kind: rule
      metadata:
        name: threescale
      spec:
        match: destination.labels["service-mesh.3scale.net"] == "true"
        actions:
          - handler: threescale.handler
            instances:
              - threescale-authorization.instance

Generating 3scale custom resources

The adapter includes a tool that allows you to generate the handler, instance, and rule custom resources.

Table 1. Usage
Option Description Required Default value

-h, --help

Produces help output for available options

No

--name

Unique name for this URL, token pair

Yes

-n, --namespace

Namespace to generate templates

No

istio-system

-t, --token

3scale access token

Yes

-u, --url

3scale Admin Portal URL

Yes

-s, --service

3scale API/Service ID

No

--auth

3scale authentication pattern to specify (1=Api Key, 2=App Id/App Key, 3=OIDC)

No

Hybrid

-o, --output

File to save produced manifests to

No

Standard output

--version

Outputs the CLI version and exits immediately

No

Generate templates from URL examples

  • This example generates templates allowing the token, URL pair to be shared by multiple services as a single handler:

    $ 3scale-gen-config --name=admin-credentials --url="https://<organization>-admin.3scale.net:443" --token="[redacted]"
  • This example generates the templates with the service ID embedded in the handler:

    $ 3scale-gen-config --url="https://<organization>-admin.3scale.net" --name="my-unique-id" --service="123456789" --token="[redacted]"

Generating manifests from a deployed adapter

  1. Run this command to generate manifests from a deployed adapter in the istio-system namespace:

    $ export NS="istio-system" URL="https://replaceme-admin.3scale.net:443" NAME="name" TOKEN="token"
    oc exec -n ${NS} $(oc get po -n ${NS} -o jsonpath='{.items[?(@.metadata.labels.app=="3scale-istio-adapter")].metadata.name}') \
    -it -- ./3scale-config-gen \
    --url ${URL} --name ${NAME} --token ${TOKEN} -n ${NS}
  2. This will produce sample output to the terminal. Edit these samples if required and create the objects using the oc create command.

  3. When the request reaches the adapter, the adapter needs to know how the service maps to an API on 3scale. You can provide this information in two ways:

    1. Label the workload (recommended)

    2. Hard code the handler as service_id

  4. Update the workload with the required annotations:

    You only need to update the service ID provided in this example if it is not already embedded in the handler. The setting in the handler takes precedence.

    $ export CREDENTIALS_NAME="replace-me"
    export SERVICE_ID="replace-me"
    export DEPLOYMENT="replace-me"
    patch="$(oc get deployment "${DEPLOYMENT}"
    patch="$(oc get deployment "${DEPLOYMENT}" --template='{"spec":{"template":{"metadata":{"labels":{ {{ range $k,$v := .spec.template.metadata.labels }}"{{ $k }}":"{{ $v }}",{{ end }}"service-mesh.3scale.net/service-id":"'"${SERVICE_ID}"'","service-mesh.3scale.net/credentials":"'"${CREDENTIALS_NAME}"'"}}}}}' )"
    oc patch deployment "${DEPLOYMENT}" --patch ''"${patch}"''

Routing service traffic through the adapter

Follow these steps to drive traffic for your service through the 3scale adapter.

Prerequisites
  • Credentials and service ID from your 3scale administrator.

Procedure
  1. Match the rule destination.labels["service-mesh.3scale.net/credentials"] == "threescale" that you previously created in the configuration, in the kind: rule resource.

  2. Add the above label to PodTemplateSpec on the Deployment of the target workload to integrate a service. the value, threescale, refers to the name of the generated handler. This handler stores the access token required to call 3scale.

  3. Add the destination.labels["service-mesh.3scale.net/service-id"] == "replace-me" label to the workload to pass the service ID to the adapter via the instance at request time.

Configure the integration settings in 3scale

Follow this procedure to configure the 3scale integration settings.

For 3scale SaaS customers, Red Hat OpenShift Service Mesh is enabled as part of the Early Access program.

Procedure
  1. Navigate to [your_API_name]IntegrationConfiguration.

  2. At the top of the Integration page click on edit integration settings in the top right corner.

  3. Under the Service Mesh heading, click the Istio option.

  4. Scroll to the bottom of the page and click Update Service.

Caching behavior

Responses from 3scale System APIs are cached by default within the adapter. Entries will be purged from the cache when they become older than the cacheTTLSeconds value. Also by default, automatic refreshing of cached entries will be attempted seconds before they expire, based on the cacheRefreshSeconds value. You can disable automatic refreshing by setting this value higher than the cacheTTLSeconds value.

Caching can be disabled entirely by setting cacheEntriesMax to a non-positive value.

By using the refreshing process, cached values whose hosts become unreachable will be retried before eventually being purged when past their expiry.

Authenticating requests

This Technology Preview release supports the following authentication methods:

  • Standard API Keys: single randomized strings or hashes acting as an identifier and a secret token.

  • Application identifier and key pairs: immutable identifier and mutable secret key strings.

  • OpenID authentication method: client ID string parsed from the JSON Web Token.

Applying authentication patterns

Modify the instance custom resource, as illustrated in the following authentication method examples, to configure authentication behavior. You can accept the authentication credentials from:

  • Request headers

  • Request parameters

  • Both request headers and query parameters

When specifying values from headers they must be lower case. For example, if you want to send a header as X-User-Key, this must be referenced in the configuration as request.headers["x-user-key"].

API key authentication method

Service Mesh looks for the API key in query parameters and request headers as specified in the user option in the subject custom resource parameter. It checks the values in the order given in the custom resource file. You can restrict the search for the API key to either query parameters or request headers by omitting the unwanted option.

In this example Service Mesh looks for the API key in the user_key query parameter. If the API key is not in the query parameter, Service Mesh then checks the x-user-key header.

API key authentication method example
apiVersion: "config.istio.io/v1alpha2"
kind: instance
metadata:
  name: threescale-authorization
  namespace: istio-system
spec:
  template: authorization
  params:
    subject:
      user: request.query_params["user_key"] | request.headers["x-user-key"] | ""
    action:
      path: request.url_path
      method: request.method | "get"

If you want the adapter to examine a different query parameter or request header, change the name as appropriate. For example, to check for the API key in a query parameter named “key”, change request.query_params["user_key"] to request.query_params["key"].

Application ID and application key pair authentication method

Service Mesh looks for the application ID and application key in query parameters and request headers, as specified in the properties option in the subject custom resource parameter. The application key is optional. It checks the values in the order given in the custom resource file. You can restrict the search for the credentials to either query parameters or request headers by not including the unwanted option.

In this example, Service Mesh looks for the application ID and application key in the query parameters first, moving on to the request headers if needed.

Application ID and application key pair authentication method example
apiVersion: "config.istio.io/v1alpha2"
kind: instance
metadata:
  name: threescale-authorization
  namespace: istio-system
spec:
  template: authorization
  params:
    subject:
        app_id: request.query_params["app_id"] | request.headers["x-app-id"] | ""
        app_key: request.query_params["app_key"] | request.headers["x-app-key"] | ""
    action:
      path: request.url_path
      method: request.method | "get"

If you want the adapter to examine a different query parameter or request header, change the name as appropriate. For example, to check for the application ID in a query parameter named identification, change request.query_params["app_id"] to request.query_params["identification"].

OpenID authentication method

To use the OpenID Connect (OIDC) authentication method, use the properties value on the subject field to set client_id, and optionally app_key.

You can manipulate this object using the methods described previously. In the example configuration shown below, the client identifier (application ID) is parsed from the JSON Web Token (JWT) under the label azp. You can modify this as needed.

OpenID authentication method example
  apiVersion: "config.istio.io/v1alpha2"
  kind: instance
  metadata:
    name: threescale-authorization
  spec:
    template: threescale-authorization
    params:
      Subject:
  properties:
          app_key: request.query_params["app_key"] | request.headers["x-app-key"] | ""
          client_id: request.auth.claims["azp"] | ""
      action:
        path: request.url_path
        method: request.method | "get"
          service: destination.labels["service-mesh.3scale.net/service-id"] | ""

For this integration to work correctly, OIDC must still be done in 3scale for the client to be created in the identity provider (IdP). You should create end-user authentication for the service you want to protect in the same namespace as that service. The JWT is passed in the Authorization header of the request.

In the sample Policy defined below, replace issuer and jwksUri as appropriate.

OpenID Policy example
  apiVersion: authentication.istio.io/v1alpha1
  kind: Policy
  metadata:
    name: jwt-example
    namespace: bookinfo
  spec:
    origins:
      - jwt:
          issuer: >-
            http://keycloak-keycloak.34.242.107.254.nip.io/auth/realms/3scale-keycloak
          jwksUri: >-
  http://keycloak-keycloak.34.242.107.254.nip.io/auth/realms/3scale-keycloak/protocol/openid-connect/certs
    principalBinding: USE_ORIGIN
    targets:
      - name: productpage

Hybrid authentication method

You can choose to not enforce a particular authentication method and accept any valid credentials for either method. If both an API key and an application ID/application key pair are provided, Service Mesh uses the API key.

In this example, Service Mesh checks for an API key in the query parameters, then the request headers. If there is no API key, it then checks for an application ID and key in the query parameters, then the request headers.

Hybrid authentication method example
apiVersion: "config.istio.io/v1alpha2"
kind: instance
metadata:
  name: threescale-authorization
spec:
  template: authorization
  params:
    subject:
      user: request.query_params["user_key"] | request.headers["x-user-key"] |
      properties:
        app_id: request.query_params["app_id"] | request.headers["x-app-id"] | ""
        app_key: request.query_params["app_key"] | request.headers["x-app-key"] | ""
        client_id: request.auth.claims["azp"] | ""
    action:
      path: request.url_path
      method: request.method | "get"
        service: destination.labels["service-mesh.3scale.net/service-id"] | ""

3scale Adapter metrics

The adapter, by default reports various Prometheus metrics that are exposed on port 8080 at the /metrics endpoint. These metrics provide insight into how the interactions between the adapter and 3scale are performing. The service is labeled to be automatically discovered and scraped by Prometheus.