Azure Red Hat OpenShift is a platform for developing and running containerized applications. It is designed to allow applications and the data centers that support them to expand from just a few machines and applications to thousands of machines that serve millions of clients.
With its foundation in Kubernetes, Azure Red Hat OpenShift incorporates the same technology that serves as the engine for massive telecommunications, streaming video, gaming, banking, and other applications. Its implementation in open Red Hat technologies lets you extend your containerized applications beyond a single cloud to on-premise and multi-cloud environments.
Although container images and the containers that run from them are the primary building blocks for modern application development, to run them at scale requires a reliable and flexible distribution system. Kubernetes is the defacto standard for orchestrating containers.
Kubernetes is an open source container orchestration engine for automating deployment, scaling, and management of containerized applications. The general concept of Kubernetes is fairly simple:
Start with one or more worker nodes to run the container workloads.
Manage the deployment of those workloads from one or more master nodes.
Wrap containers in a deployment unit called a Pod. Using Pods provides extra metadata with the container and offers the ability to group several containers in a single deployment entity.
Create special kinds of assets. For example, services are represented by a set of Pods and a policy that defines how they are accessed. This policy allows containers to connect to the services that they need even if they do not have the specific IP addresses for the services. Replication controllers are another special asset that indicates how many Pod Replicas are required to run at a time. You can use this capability to automatically scale your application to adapt to its current demand.
In only a few years, Kubernetes has seen massive cloud and on-premise adoption. The open source development model allows many people to extend Kubernetes by implementing different technologies for components such as networking, storage, and authentication.
Using containerized applications offers many advantages over using traditional deployment methods. Where applications were once expected to be installed on operating systems that included all their dependencies, containers let an application carry their dependencies with them. Creating containerized applications offers many benefits.
Containers use small, dedicated Linux operating systems without a kernel. Their file system, networking, cgroups, process tables, and namespaces are separate from the host Linux system, but the containers can integrate with the hosts seamlessly when necessary. Being based on Linux allows containers to use all the advantages that come with the open source development model of rapid innovation.
Because each container uses a dedicated operating system, you can deploy applications that require conflicting software dependencies on the same host. Each container carries its own dependent software and manages its own interfaces, such as networking and file systems, so applications never need to compete for those assets.
If you employ rolling upgrades between major releases of your application, you can continuously improve your applications without downtime and still maintain compatibility with the current release.
You can also deploy and test a new version of an application alongside the existing version. Deploy the new application version in addition to the current version. If the container passes your tests, simply deploy more new containers and remove the old ones.
Since all the software dependencies for an application are resolved within the container itself, you can use a generic operating system on each host in your data center. You do not need to configure a specific operating system for each application host. When your data center needs more capacity, you can deploy another generic host system.
Similarly, scaling containerized applications is simple. Azure Red Hat OpenShift offers a simple, standard way of scaling any containerized service. For example, if you build applications as a set of microservices rather than large, monolithic applications, you can scale the individual microservices individually to meet demand. This capability allows you to scale only the required services instead of the entire application, which can allow you to meet application demands while using minimal resources.
Azure Red Hat OpenShift provides enterprise-ready enhancements to Kubernetes, including the following enhancements:
Azure Red Hat OpenShift clusters are deployed on Azure environments and can be used as part of a hybrid approach for application management.
Integrated Red Hat technology. Major components in Azure Red Hat OpenShift come from Red Hat Enterprise Linux and related Red Hat technologies. Azure Red Hat OpenShift benefits from the intense testing and certification initiatives for Red Hat’s enterprise quality software.
Open source development model. Development is completed in the open, and the source code is available from public software repositories. This open collaboration fosters rapid innovation and development.
Although Kubernetes excels at managing your applications, it does not specify or manage platform-level requirements or deployment processes. Powerful and flexible platform management tools and processes are important benefits that Azure Red Hat OpenShift 4 offers. The following sections describe some unique features and benefits of Azure Red Hat OpenShift.
Azure Red Hat OpenShift uses Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS), a container-oriented operating system that combines some of the best features and functions of the CoreOS and Red Hat Atomic Host operating systems. RHCOS is specifically designed for running containerized applications from Azure Red Hat OpenShift and works with new tools to provide fast installation, Operator-based management, and simplified upgrades.
Ignition, which Azure Red Hat OpenShift uses as a firstboot system configuration for initially bringing up and configuring machines.
CRI-O, a Kubernetes native container runtime implementation that integrates closely with the operating system to deliver an efficient and optimized Kubernetes experience. CRI-O provides facilities for running, stopping, and restarting containers. It fully replaces the Docker Container Engine , which was used in Azure Red Hat OpenShift 3.
Kubelet, the primary node agent for Kubernetes that is responsible for launching and monitoring containers.
In Azure Red Hat OpenShift 4, you must use RHCOS for all control plane machines, but you can use Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) as the operating system for compute machines, which are also known as worker machines. If you choose to use RHEL workers, you must perform more system maintenance than if you use RHCOS for all of the cluster machines.
With Azure Red Hat OpenShift 4, if you have an account with the right permissions, you can deploy a production cluster in supported clouds by running a single command and providing a few values. You can also customize your cloud installation or install your cluster in your data center if you use a supported platform.
For clusters that use RHCOS for all machines, updating, or upgrading, Azure Red Hat OpenShift is a simple, highly-automated process. Because Azure Red Hat OpenShift completely controls the systems and services that run on each machine, including the operating system itself, from a central control plane, upgrades are designed to become automatic events. If your cluster contains RHEL worker machines, the control plane benefits from the streamlined update process, but you must perform more tasks to upgrade the RHEL machines.
Operators are both the fundamental unit of the Azure Red Hat OpenShift 4 code base and a convenient way to deploy applications and software components for your applications to use. In Azure Red Hat OpenShift, Operators serve as the platform foundation and remove the need for manual upgrades of operating systems and control plane applications. Azure Red Hat OpenShift Operators such as the Cluster Version Operator and Machine Config Operator allow simplified, cluster-wide management of those critical components.
Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) and the OperatorHub provide facilities for storing and distributing Operators to people developing and deploying applications.
The Red Hat Quay Container Registry is a Quay.io container registry that serves most of the container images and Operators to Azure Red Hat OpenShift clusters. Quay.io is a public registry version of Red Hat Quay that stores millions of images and tags.
Other enhancements to Kubernetes in Azure Red Hat OpenShift include improvements in
software defined networking (SDN), authentication, log aggregation, monitoring,
and routing. Azure Red Hat OpenShift also offers a comprehensive web console and the
custom OpenShift CLI (
In Azure Red Hat OpenShift 4, you require access to the internet to install your cluster. The Telemetry service, which runs by default to provide metrics about cluster health and the success of updates, also requires internet access. If your cluster is connected to the internet, Telemetry runs automatically, and your cluster is registered to the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager (OCM).
Once you confirm that your Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager inventory is correct, either maintained automatically by Telemetry or manually using OCM, use subscription watch to track your Azure Red Hat OpenShift subscriptions at the account or multi-cluster level.
You must have internet access to:
Access the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager page to download the installation program and perform subscription management. If the cluster has internet access and you do not disable Telemetry, that service automatically entitles your cluster.
Access Quay.io to obtain the packages that are required to install your cluster.
Obtain the packages that are required to perform cluster updates.